Oct 10, 2015 at 20:33 o\clock

Difference between Modernism and Postmodernism

"A work can become modern only if it is first postmodern. Postmodernism thus understood is not modernism at its end but in the nascent state, and this state is constant."

--Jean-Francois Lyotard

According to some theorists, the 20th century can be divided into two distinct periods; one characterized by the modernism movement and the other by postmodernism. Some believe that postmodernism was a response to modernism and hence consider them as two aspects of the same movement. There are some major differences between modernism and postmodernism. These distinctions make clear the basic difference in the ways of thinking that led to these movements. The difference between modernism and postmodernism highlights the difference in the two approaches towards life.


Modernism describes a collection of cultural movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. It consists of a series of reforming movements in art, architecture, literature, music, and applied arts. It was characterized by a dramatic change of thought, whereby human intellect sought to improve their environment. There was a trend of improving every aspect of life by involving science and technology into it. Modernism brought about a reform in all spheres of life including philosophy, commerce, art, and literature, with the aid of technology and experimentation. It led to progress in many spheres of life by changing the approach of mankind towards them.


Postmodernism means, 'after the modern'. It was a reaction to modernism and was influenced by the disenchantment brought about by the Second World War. Postmodernism refers to the state that lacks a central hierarchy and one that is complex, ambiguous, and diverse. The developments in society, economy, and culture of the 1960s were impacted by postmodernism.

Modernism Vs. Postmodernism

? Modernism began in the 1890s and lasted till about 1945.

? Postmodernism began after the Second World War, especially after 1968.

? Its aim was criticism of the bourgeois social order of the 19th century and its world view. Modernist painting is considered to have begun with the French painter Édouard Manet.

? The first use of the term postmodernism dates back to the 1870s. John Watkins Chapman referred to a postmodern style of painting which differed from French Impressionism. J.M. Thompson used the term to refer to changes in attitudes and beliefs in religion.

? Low forms of art were a part of modernism. Simplicity and elegance in design are the characteristics of modern art.

? Postmodern art brought high and low culture together by using industrial materials and pop culture imagery. Postmodern art is decorative.

? Modernism was based on using rational and logical means to gain knowledge. It rejected realism. A hierarchical, organized, and determinate nature of knowledge characterized modernism.

? Postmodernism denied the application of logical thinking. Rather, the thinking during the postmodern era was based on an unscientific, irrational thought process, as a reaction to modernism.

? Modernism is based on European and Western thought.

? Postmodernists believe in multiculturalism.

? Modernist approach was objective, theoretical, and analytical.

? Postmodernism was based on an anarchical, non-totalized, and indeterminate state of knowledge.

? Modernist thinking is about the search of an abstract truth of life.

? Postmodernist thinkers believe that there is no universal truth, abstract or otherwise.

? Modernism attempts to construct a coherent world-view.

? Postmodernism attempts to remove the difference between high and low.

? Modernist thinking asserts that mankind progresses by using science and reason. It believes in learning from past experiences and trusts the texts that narrate the past.

? Postmodernists believe that progress is the only way to justify the European domination on culture. They defy any truth in the text narrating the past and render it of no use in the present times.

? Modernist historians believe in depth. They believe in going deep into a subject to fully analyze it.

? Postmodernist thinkers believe in going by superficial appearances, they believe in playing on surfaces and show less or no concern towards the depth of subjects.

? Modernism considers the original works as authentic.

? Postmodernist thinkers base their views on hyper-reality; they get highly influenced by things propagated through media.

? Modernists believe that morality can be defined.

? Postmodernists believe that morality is relative.

? The year 1939 is considered to have marked the end of modernism. In the 1970s, postmodern movement entered music. In art and architecture, it began to establish itself in the early 1980s. The exact year when modernism ended, and whether it ended in the real sense is debatable.

? It is considered that postmodernism started going out of fashion around the late 1990s, and was replaced by post-postmodernism which has developed from and is a reaction to postmodernism. Metamodernism is a related term that was first used by Zavarzadeh in 1975 to describe aesthetics and attitudes emerging in the American literature in the mid-1950s.

During the modernist era, art and literary works were considered as unique creations of the artists. People were serious about the purpose of producing art and literary works. These works were believed to have a deep meaning, and novels and books predominated society. During the postmodernist era, with the onset of computers, media, and advancements in technology, television and computers became dominant in society. Art and literary works began to be copied and preserved by means of digital media. People no longer believed in art and literary works bearing one unique meaning; they rather believed in deriving their own meanings from works of art and literature. Interactive media and the Internet led to distribution of knowledge. Music by those like Mozart and Beethoven, which was appreciated during modernism, became less popular in the postmodern era. World music, Djs, and remixes characterized postmodernism. The architectural forms that were popular during modernism were replaced by a mix of different architectural styles in the postmodern times.

A relatively slow-paced life that was driven by grounded principles became fast-paced and lost its calm. Perhaps, the pace killed peace.

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Aug 9, 2015 at 22:09 o\clock

Causes Of Facial Wrinkles

A painful and often debilitating disease, eczema is a skin disorder that is suffered by millions. Frequently treated with steroids, the immune system is further compromised -- inflaming the dermis and creating a vicious cycle that is difficult to break. Toxic vaccinations also aggravate this distressing malady. Mercifully, natural remedies provide an intelligent option -- curing eczema gently without the side effects of conventional treatments.

Connecting the dots between eczema, immunity and the gut

The first line of attack in overcoming eczema is healing the gut. Since a majority of those suffering from eczema experience leaky gut syndrome, it is important to take care of the digestive tract. When the intestinal wall becomes overly permeable with this syndrome, toxins pass into the blood stream which triggers an inflammatory response. Allergies and food reactions follow -- along with eczema. Unfortunately, this whole cycle taxes the immune system.

One of the best ways to mend the gut and reduce permeability is to adopt an organic whole-food diet with plenty of vegetables, fiber and freshly juiced greens. Toss out processed and gluten containing foods, dairy, meat, unsprouted grains and sugar. Fermented foods are an excellent choice as are probiotics like those found in kefir and yogurt. Bone broth, with its high collagen content, also assists in healing the gut. Just make sure to source organic grass-fed ingredients. The amino acid L-glutamine is exceptional for strengthening the intestinal lining and boosting immune function. It also reduces allergies and improves nutrient absorption. Flax, borage, hemp and pumpkin seed oils supply essential fatty acids that are vital to balancing inflammatory response. Additionally, evening primrose and sunflower seed oils are first-rate sources of gamma linolenic acid which plays a strong role in skin health. And don't forget about chia seeds -- another outstanding source of omega-3 fats. On the herbal front, cat's claw (una de gato) cleanses the entire digestive tract of dangerous pathogens, thereby reducing reactions that exacerbate eczema. Persimmon leaf extract is another medicinal herb that demonstrates extraordinary anti-inflammatory properties that clarify the skin and minimize discomfort.

Topical relief

To arrest the intense itch of eczema, several external treatments show promise.

Coconut oil - Seals and protects the skin - - while taming inflammation. Antibacterial and anti fungal action prevents infection in open sores.

Oat flour and slippery elm powder - Used in warm baths to coat and calm the skin.

Magnesium chloride spray - Applied topically to diminish inflammation.

Sunflower seed oil - Anti-inflammatory. Also serves as an excellent moisture barrier.

Sea salt - Add to warm baths. Lends welcome relief from inflammation and pain.

Bentonite clay - Detoxifies and comforts the skin when dissolved in a lukewarm bath.

Always remember to drink plenty of purified water throughout the day which flushes out toxins and hydrates the skin. Sleep and stress-reducing exercise are also important for robust immune function. By detoxifying the body, healing the gut and strengthening the immune system, eczema can be cured naturally without harmful after effects.

Eczema is an irritating skin disease that ranges from chronic, itchy minor rashes to raging acute eczema flare-ups with open, oozing sores that require bandaging.

Eczema is often attributed to some sort of food or airborne allergy and can be minimized by determining the allergens and adjusting accordingly. Most eczema sufferers resort to using pharmaceuticals pills, creams, or steroids.

Of course, what many tend to ignore is that improving life style choices of diet and exercise does more to curb skin problems than topical or oral pharmaceuticals.

Eliminating chemically sprayed veggies and fruits, processed foods (even so-called "natural" cereals), junk foods, sugars, and artificial sweeteners goes a long way toward curing chronic, adverse health of any type, including skin conditions.

Minimizing stress and adding moderate exercise has also proven to be effective. Sweat can act as a trigger or exacerbate eczema. So avoid sweating whenever possible or shower immediately afterward sweating.

Increase your omega-3 intake with avocadoes, fresh salmon or tuna from unpolluted waters, eggs, organic raw nuts, and organic hemp, chia or flax seeds. Two tablespoons or more of flax seeds need to be ground with a coffee grinder just before consuming them.

While you're working on a permanent cure, there are natural, homemade applications that help relieve symptoms without the dangerous side effects of prescribed or over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals.

Ten home remedies for symptomatic relief

(1) Organic cold pressed virgin coconut oil is better than those pricey creams that a dermatologist offers.

(2) Apply vitamin E oil, especially natural D-alpha tocopherol with mixed natural tocopherols. You can break open gel capsules for the oils. Avoiding synthetic vitamin E oil is tricky. So read labels closely, research, or ask a reliable sales person. Avoid vitamin E acetate.

(3) Make a strong brew of chamomile tea from fresh dried herbs by steeping for 15 minutes minimally. Apply to the eczema area with gauze for 20 minutes. This can be done more than once daily to relieve acute symptoms.

(4) Aloe vera gel, especially when mixed with vitamin E oil, is a useful symptom remedy. Gels from freshly cut aloe vera leaves are optimum.

(5) Ten drops of gentian tincture before each meal helps the digestive system eliminate toxins that can irritate the skin. Take as often as needed.

(6) Cut thin slices of a whole organic cucumber and allow the slices to soak for at least two hours. Filter the liquid and apply it with a clean cloth or gauze where needed.

(7) Place 50 grams of ground horsetail plant or herbs in a quart or liter of water and boil for 10 minutes, allow some cooling, then filter the liquid into your bath water for a 10 minute bath.

(8) Flower power: Make a tea of calendula, a marigold flower, with five drops of lavender essential oil added, then apply to the affected area twice a day until the irritation is relieved.

(9) Skin three organic carrots and boil them till they're soft. Mash until you get a smooth paste, and then apply to affected areas for 15 minutes. Rinse with cool water when finished.

(10) Mix a tablespoon of medical or food grade ground juniper berry (3), with a tablespoon of sage and a tablespoon of - - thyme into a cup of boiling water, cover and let stand for five or more minutes. Drink the whole cup after your main meal.