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Jan 16, 2017 at 13:12 o\clock

1950s' Fashion and Clothing That are Still So High on Style

Fashion is an omnipotent psychological narcotic that has drugged the human http://seoathens.gr - http://seoathens.gr - society in many different forms since civilization took its first breath. Fashion has witnessed many transitions and has been greatly influenced by social, intellectual, and philosophical movements such as the Renaissance, Conservatism, Liberalism, etc. The 1950s being the post World-War period, witnessed radical transitions in fashion, especially for women. Women's fashion in the 1950s is considered by many to be the golden era of feminine expression. The 50s' fashion scene was inundated with a rage for extremely smart and elegant women's clothes characterized by emphasis on detailed tailoring coupled with soft, feminine silhouettes.



1950s' fashion for women is marked by revolutionary changes in the designs of, and materials used in, crafting fashion wares, viz. clothing, footwear, accessories, etc. Fashion of the 1950s, for women, is typified by the popularity of Nylon as a fashion fabric, petticoats, stilettos, fuller and longer skirts, and an elegant, cheerful depiction of persona in advertising and media. Let us take a walk down the retro-lane and take a look at the fashion details, item by item, that make the 1950s stand out prominently in the chronicles of world fashion.

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Jan 16, 2017 at 07:15 o\clock

What Is SEO / Search Engine Optimization?

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What Is SEO?

SEO stands for "search engine optimization." It is the process of getting traffic from the "free," "organic," "editorial" or "natural" search results on search engines.

All major search engines such as Google, Bing and Yahoo have primary search results, where web pages and other content such as videos or local listings are shown and ranked based on what the search engine considers most relevant to users. Payment isn't involved, as it is with paid search ads.

VIDEO: SEO Explained

New to SEO? Start with this quick and easy to understand video about search engine optimization. It'll quickly cover the basics:

Search Engine Land worked with Common Craft to produce the video, and they have many more great explainer videos like this in the Common Craft video library, so check that out.

More SEO Advice For Beginners



For more basic but also in-depth advice, our Periodic Table Of SEO Success Factors, shown below, introduces you to all the key concepts you need to know:

Periodic Table Of SEO

You can click on the table to view a larger version of it. You can download a copy to print for easy reference!

Search Engine Land's Guide To SEO

As a companion to the table, Search Engine Land's Guide To SEO explains the ranking factors in more depth, in a tutorial providing tips and advice on implementing them.

Links to the entire guide are shown below (start at the beginning, and each page will take you to the next):

More SEO Guides & Books

Another excellent guide is Google's "Search Engine Optimization Starter Guide." This is a free PDF download that covers basic tips that Google provides to its own employees on how to get listed. You'll find it here. Also well worth checking out is Moz's "Beginner's Guide To SEO," which you'll find here, and the SEO Success Pyramid from Small Business Search Marketing.

Daily SEO News & Expert SEO Advice

In addition to daily news stories from our editorial staff, Search Engine Land publishes daily articles from expert contributors that cover SEO issues mainly from an in-the-trenches perspective.  Browse the SEO Channel for the most recent SEO news stories and expert columns, or sign up to receive all of our SEO related content via email.

Search Engine Land's SEO Library

The SEO Library is an area within Search Engine Land that provides a collection of all stories we've written on the topic of SEO. We also have sub-categories, including:

Also see our related Link Building category and these sub-categories:

In addition to covering SEO generally, Search Engine Land also has search engine optimization areas specifically for each of the major search engines:

Also within our library is the How To: SEO section, which is devoted to practical tips and tactics about search engine optimization.

Get SEO News & Advice Delivered To Your Inbox

Subscribe to our weekly SEO and daily SearchCap newsletters for a recap of all the latest SEO related news, tips and tactics from Search Engine Land and other sources all over the Web.

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Jan 16, 2017 at 07:14 o\clock

SEO Greece search engine optimization, web design, development, Cyberdias

Web design GreeceIf you want people to be able to access information about your organization and it's products and services 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and 365 days a year, you need an effective web page- istoselida. Call us today and find the right search engine optimization seo services package for your website. If your site is well designed it can be an economical marketing tool for your business, much cheaper for example than advertising in the printed or televised media.

Our professional team of web development experts, who specializes in web design, graphic design, web promotion, web marketing, internet promotion, logos, business cards, seo consulting, web consulting, maintains all the latest upgrades for all of our systems only with the best technology available. What we consider first priority, is to invent new tools so your web presence is maintained as reliable as possible. We operate a top of the line data center in Chicago equipped to ensure all our hosting clients with security and reliability. We make sure your site is operational 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year!

More than 60 percent of the respondents to a survey by Lyra Research picked the Internet for personal and other information needs, compared to 18% for printed media. When searching information related to work, 48 percent of those who responded did choose the Internet, and only 7 percent had a preference on magazines. This study also showed that once consumers start using the world wide web, they like to use it more frequently as they get more experienced, and that these same users also tend to use traditional media sources significantly less.

 

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Jan 15, 2017 at 05:34 o\clock

2007 ASHRAE Winter Meeting Dallas, Texas.

Sunday

January 28, 2007

7:45 a.m.-9:15 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 1 (Intermediate)

Numerical Modeling of Noise and Vibration in HVAC Systems

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.6 Sound and Vibration Control

Chair: William B. Rockwood, Member, Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI

The use of numerical computational models to represent the noise

and vibration characteristics of various HVAC systems is presented. A

general overview of alternative technologies, including boundary element

analysis, finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics is

given. Several practical applications follow, encompassing reverberation

rooms, duct systems and fan sources. Predictions for several acoustical

plenums (TRP-1218) are compared with test data, showing results

generally superior to traditional semi-empirical formulas at low

frequencies. Numerical methods provide means by which the mechanisms

controlling acoustical performance can be understood and, ultimately,

controlled in design.

1. The Use of Numerical Acoustics to Solve Classical Acoustics

Problems at HVAC OEM (DA-07-001)

James E. Bender, PE, Member, and Patrick C. Marks, PE, Member, York

International, York, PA

2. Using Numerical Acoustics to Predict the Attenuation of HVAC

Plenums (RP-1218) (DA-07-002)

David W. Herrin, PhD, Z. Tao, E.L. Scalf, S.A. Allen and A.F.

Seybert, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY

3. Using Numerical Methods to Analyze Multi-Component HVAC Systems

(RP-1218) (DA-07-003)

D.W. Herrin, Z. Tao, A.E. Carter, J. Liu, and Andy Seybert, PhD,

University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY

SEMINAR 1 (Intermediate)

Big Opportunities for Energy Savings and Emission Reductions

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.5 Residential and Small Building Applications

Chair: Charles H. Culp, PhD, PE, Member, Texas A & M

University, College Station, TX

Reduced HVAC energy consumption has a very high consumer interest

at this time. One potentially overlooked benefit of lowered energy

consumption is reduced pollutant emissions, such as carbon and NOx, as

shown in information from Dallas-area research. According to these

speakers, there are great opportunities available for decreased energy

consumption and improved air quality.

1. Energy Code Driven Emissions Reductions

Charles H. Culp, PhD, PE, Member, Texas A & M University,

College Station, TX

2. Technical Opportunities for Emissions Reduction from Energy Use

in the Commercial Sector

Paul A. Torcellini, PhD, PE, Member, National Renewable Energy

Laboratory, Golden, CO

3. New Source Energy and Emissions Factors for ASHRAE

Michael P. Deru, PhD, PE, Member, National Renewable Energy

Laboratory, Golden, CO

SEMINAR 2 (Intermediate)

Case Studies in Humidity Control, Part 1

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.1 Large Building Air-Conditioning Systems; TC 1.12

Moisture Management in Buildings

Chair: Phillip M. Trafton, Member, Donald F. Dickerson Associates,

Van Nuys, CA

Speakers share how they solved moisture control issues in select

projects.

1. Performance of Packaged Rooftop Units on a Jail

Ken E. Gill, PE, Fellow, JJA, Inc., Dallas, TX

2. Humidity Control in the Natatorium Environment

Stephen W. Duda, PE, Member, Ross & Baruzzini, Inc., St. Louis,

MO

3. Solving a Small Art Museum Humidity Control with DX Split

Systems

John L. Kuempel Jr., PE, Member, DeBra-Kuempel, EMCOR, Cincinnati,

OH

SEMINAR 3 (Intermediate)

CHP: New Energy Efficiency Tools for Sustainable Building Design

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 1.10 Cogeneration System

Chair: Richard Sweetser, Member, EXERGY Partners Corp., Herndon, VA

To achieve energy efficient building design requires a multiplicity

of engineering approaches. New combined heat and power (CHP) systems are

emerging as an important class of technologies that can provide

significant energy efficiency gains. The three technologies and

applications presented span a wide range of approaches from 200 kW of

recycled energy, to 1.4 MW and 345 RT of chilled water in an integrated

system, to an advanced 4.3 MW CHP critical facility plant. These

technologies and approaches are important elements for every engineer to

understand as energy prices continue to rise and grid power continues to

degrade.

1. New Packaged 200 kW Micro Steam Turbine Energy Recovery

Generator

Timothy Wagner, PhD, Member, United Technologies, East Hartford, CT

2. Advanced 4.3 MW Recuperated Combustion Turbine, 2,500 RT

Chillers and 8,000 ton-hour Thermal Storage CHP Plant for Dell

Children's Hospital

Edward R. Mardiat, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO

3. First Application of a 1.4 MW Engine 345 RT Hybrid Chiller Plant

at Raritan Valley College

Nitin Pathakji, Member, Broad U.S.A. Inc, Hackensack, NJ

SEMINAR 4 (Intermediate)

Latest Practices of Energy Conservation, Ventilation and

Pressurization in Cleanroom and Laboratory Facilities

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.11 Clean Spaces; TC 9.10 Laboratory Systems and TC

2.8 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability

Chair: Wei Sun, PE, Member, Engsysco, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan

Modern cleanroom and laboratory facilities require higher initial

construction cost and result in higher energy consumption than most

commercial buildings. Recent studies have found practical approaches to

enhancing tightly-controlled ventilation and pressurization system

performances while maintaining at a lower or reduced level of energy

consumption. In this seminar, high containment laboratory ventilation

performances and effectiveness along with the latest development of

pressurization controls, energy consumption estimation, staged

pressurizations, pressurization simulation technology, and energy

conservation practices. A case study of LEED practice for a large, new

semiconductor manufacturing facility is shared.

1. Performance Comparison of Ventilation Control Designs for High

Containment Laboratories

Jim Coogan, PE, Member, Siemens Building Technology, Buffalo Grove,

IL

2. Energy Conservation in Laboratory HVAC Systems

Jin Wen, PhD, Member, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA

3. Energy Conservation Practices in Pressurization System Design

for Laboratories and Cleanrooms

Wei Sun, PE, Member, Engsysco, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI

4. Clean, Green and Fabulous: LEED Practice in a New Semiconductor

Manufacturing Facility

Paul Westbrook, Texas Instruments Worldwide Construction, Dallas,

TX

SEMINAR 5 (Intermediate)

Performance Validation and Properties of Active and Multifunctional

Facades and Building Structures

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 4.4 Building Materials and Building Envelope

Performance

Chair: Paul H. Shipp, PhD, PE, Member, USG Research &

Technology Innovation Center, Libertyville, IL

Different types of thermal activation of building structures are

increasingly utilized not only in buildings that rely on direct use of

solar energy, but also in other types. These strategies include phase

change materials integrated walls, multifunctional PV facades with

controllable variable daylight/solar gain features, and integrating

thermal and electrical output. Much of the existing research has focused

on the integration of these facades and structures with the rest of the

building, but detailed information is scarce on relevant properties and

the performance of multifunctional facades relevant for the specific

function as well as with respect to the integral energy efficiency.

1. Solar Architecture: Computational Performance Assessment of

Facades with Advanced Daylighting and Photovoltaic Devices

Stephen K. Wittkopf, PhD, PE, School of Design and Environment,

Singapore, Singapore

2. TMT: A New Material for Multifunctional Sustainable Facades and

Other Potential Uses in Construction

Rainer Schoftner, PhD, PE, Profactor Produktionsforschungs GmbH,

Austria

3. Building Integrated Photovoltaics: Simulated, Tested and Actual

Performance

Tony Jacobi, PhD, Member, University of Illinois at Urbana

Champaign, Urbana, IL

4. Measuring Technical Characterization of Facades and Building

Structures Activation and Multifunctionality Relevant Properties

Marija S. Todorovic, PhD, PE, Member, University of Belgrade,

Belgrade, Serbia

SEMINAR 6 (Intermediate)

Ventilation and IAQ in Apartment Buildings

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration

Chair: Steven J. Emmerich, Member, National Institute of Standards

and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Despite the existence of over 7 million living units in U.S. mid-

and high-rise multifamily buildings, there have been no major studies of

the ventilation and IAQ performance of such buildings. While apartment

buildings are covered by ASHRAE standards, the ASHRAE Handbook contains

only a few paragraphs specific to these buildings. Since apartment

buildings differ significantly from both low-rise residential buildings

and high-rise commercial buildings, the available data from study of

those building types is only indirectly applicable to apartment

buildings. This seminar presents design issues and research results

related to ventilation and IAQ in apartment buildings.

1. Design of Ventilation in Mid/Hi-Rise Residential Buildings:

Current Methods, Trends and Challenges

Todd Friedman, PE, Member, GHT Limited, Arlington, VA

2. Research on Ventilation in Canadian Multifamily Buildings:

Problems and Solutions

Duncan Hill, Member, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON,

Canada

3. Reducing ETS Transfer in Multifamily Buildings

Dave Bohac, Member, Center for Energy & Environment,

Minneapolis, MN

SEMINAR 7 (Intermediate)

What System Components Are Used Today in Unitary Air Conditioners,

and What Changes Will Get Us to the Next Efficiency Level?

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.11 Unitary and Room Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

Chair: Jason T. LeRoy, Member, Trane Residential Systems, Tyler, TX

With the ever-increasing demand for more energy efficient products,

the unitary HVAC industry continues to look for improved strategies for

equipment efficiency. This seminar addresses opportunities for possible

efficiency improvements in unitary equipment. It also explores the

history of the SEER rating, a summary of unitary SEER improvements, 13

SEER issues, and other issues for the next efficiency level.

1. A History of Unitary Efficiency Improvements

Michael W. Woodford, Member, ARI, Arlington, VA

2. Experimental Performance of a Two-Stage Unitary Heat Pump with

Economizing for Northern U.S. Climates

Eckhard A. Groll, PhD, Fellow, Purdue University, West Lafayette,

IN

3. Application of Evolutionary Algorithms for Refrigerant Circuitry

Optimization in Heat Exchangers

Piotr A. Domanski, PhD, Member, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD

Sunday

January 28, 2007

9:30 a.m.-10:30 a.m.

TECHNICAL PLENARY SPEAKER: DENNIS DIMICK, Executive Editor,

National Geographic

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Dimick has been a picture editor specializing in stories about the

environment since 1990, and he served nearly two years as the National

Geographic's environment editor. He currently oversees the

development of visual content at National Geographic Magazine. A

September 2004 National Geographic Magazine project he proposed and

oversaw on global climate change called Signs From Earth was cited in

2005 by the Overseas Press Club for the best environmental coverage, and

it received second place from the Society of Environmental Journalists

for best explanatory journalism. Dimick will speak on global climate

change and show stunning visual images throughout his presentation.

Sunday

January 28, 2007

10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

TRANSACTIONS 2 (Intermediate)

How Low Can You Go? Low-Energy Buildings through Integrated Design

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.8 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability

Chair: Drury B. Crawley, Member, US Department of Energy,

Washington, DC

With recent interest in green buildings, a number of buildings

designed to save significant amounts of energy have been constructed.

But how are these buildings operating? This session brings together case

studies of low-energy, sustainability, and integrated design in

residential and commercial buildings. Topics include evaluation of

individual technologies, design process, lessons learned, and long-term

measured energy performance. This is the third in a planned series about

the operating performance of low-energy buildings worldwide.

1. Zero Energy Building Case Study: Science House (DA-07-004)

Jason Steinbock, David A. Eijadi and Tom McDoougall, PE, The Weidt

Group, Minnetonka, MN

2. Tale of Two Low-Energy Designs: Comparison of A Mechanically

Ventilated to a Naturally Ventilated Office Building in Temperate

Climate (DA-07-005)

Christine E. Walker, PhD, Associate Member, University of Illinois

at Chicago, Chicago, IL; Leslie K. Norford, PhD, Member; and Leon R.

Glicksman, PhD, Member, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Cambridge, MA

3. Jack Evans Police Headquarters: 24 Hours of Low Energy Use

(DA-07-006)

Susan O'Reilly, PE, Member, Enermodal Engineering, Denver, CO;

Tim S. Kraft, PSA-Dewberry, Inc., Dallas, TX; Victor Olgyay, RMI/Ensar

Built Environment Team, Boulder, CO

4. Measured Energy Performance of a US-China Demonstration Energy

Efficient Office Building (DA-07-007)

Yu Joe Huang and Peng Xu, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Berkeley, CA

SEMINAR 8 (Advanced)

Applications of Computer Simulation in High Performance Buildings

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 4.7 Energy Calculations

Chair: Martha Brook, PE, Member, California Energy Commission,

Sacramento, CA

This seminar presents innovative approaches to simulating

mechanical systems and their interaction with the building envelope in

commercial buildings. These "high performance" buildings

include energy saving technologies such as valence heating and cooling

systems, double skin facades, radiant cooling and heating systems,

mixed-mode systems and indirect-direct evaporative cooling.

1. Modeling Double Skin Facades

Aleka Pappas, Enermodal Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO

2. Valence Heating and Cooling for Dormitory Buildings

Aleka Pappas, Enermodal Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO

3. Simulating Several High Performance Buildings in Central Europe

Jan Hensen, PhD, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven,

Netherlands

SEMINAR 9 (Advanced)

Combustion Noise in Heating Equipment

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.10 Fuels and Combustion

Chair: Raymond Albrecht, PE, Member, New York State Energy Research

and Dev. Authority, Albany, NY

In heating appliances, combustion noise affects occupant

satisfaction, equipment location, and choice of burner technology. In

severe cases, equipment integrity and emissions can be affected. This

seminar combines the fundamental aspects of combustion-drive noise and

practical approaches toward its elimination.

1. Fundamentals of Combustion Oscillations in Heating Equipment

with Live Demonstrations

Peter Baade, DrIng, Fayetteville, NY

2. Combustion-Driven Oscillations in Process Heaters: How to Design

Them Out

James Seebold, PhD, Chevron (Ret), Atherton, CA

3. Research in Industry on Thermo-Acoustic Noise

Koen Vanoverberghe, PhD, NV Bekaert SA, Ingelmunster, Belgium

SEMINAR 10 (Intermediate)

Design Considerations for Multi-Zone Residential Forced-Air Systems

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.3 Central Forced Air Heating and Cooling Systems

Chair: William D. Rittelmann, PE, Member, IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh,

PA

Design of multi-zone residential forced-air systems has evolved as

new equipment and systems are developed. This seminar reviews current

design guidelines and considerations needed to select and design a

multi-zone residential system. Current equipment features, system

configurations, design issues and control strategies are explored. The

seminar is intended for system designers and those working to develop

new and improved systems.

1. Design and Application of Small Multi-Zone Forced-Air Systems

Kent Browning, PE, KWR Services, Austin, TX

2. Heating/Cooling Equipment Issues with Zoning Systems

Roy R. Crawford, PhD, PE, Member, Trane Co., Tyler, TX

3. Small Multi-Zone Forced-Air System Configurations

Raj Shah, Carrier Corp., Indianapolis, IN

SEMINAR 11 (Intermediate)

Energy Efficient Design for Outside Air Systems: Part 1

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.12 Desiccant and Sorption Technology; TC 5.07

Evaporative Cooling

Chair: Andrew L. Mongar, Member, American Genius Corp., Lancaster,

PA

Conditioning outside air normally adds to the energy consumption of

a system. Standards for outside air are increasing as is their

proportion of the load. Technologies used in conjunction with

compression equipment can considerably reduce the energy requirements,

such as indirect evaporative cooling, air-to-air exchange, and desiccant

dehumidification. This seminar features a review paper and practical

examples of highly efficient systems.

1. Active and Passive Desiccants in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems:

Selection and Control Issues for Best Performance

Stanley A. Mumma, PhD, PE, Fellow, Penn State University,

University Park, PA

2. Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Outside Air Systems

Dan Harmeyer, Member, Harmeyer Nellos Engineering, Albuquerque, NM

3. Improving Energy Efficiency by Using Desiccant Dehumidification

Mark Nunnelly, PE, Nunnelly and Associates, Inc., Birmingham, AL

SEMINAR 12 (BASIC)

Exergy and Energy Security for Sustainability

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TG1. Exergy Analysis for Sustainable Buildings

Chair: Peter Novak, PhD, Fellow, Fellow, Energotech, Ljubljana,

Slovenia

Energy security ranges from physically securing the sources to

securing the future of supplies. Because the future of the supplies is a

matter of human interactions with the environment, energy efficiency is

important. In contrary, little known exergy efficiency is more important

for energy, human and environment security, because existing HVAC

systems have exergy efficiency that is too low and leaves room for

development, innovation and opportunities to protect the environment.

This seminar focuses on the complete range of energy security from the

exergy point of view.

1. Energy and Exergy Security: Which One Comes First for

Sustainability?

Birol Kilkis, PhD, Fellow, WattsRadiant, Vienna, VA

2. Exergy Policies for Better Use of Resources

Ibrahim Dincer, PhD, Member, University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON,

Canada

3. Building/HVAC's Integrated Dynamic Exergentic Analysis

Approach to Energy Security

Marija S. Todorovic, PhD, Member, University of Belgrade, Belgrade,

Montenegro

SEMINAR 13 (Intermediate)

Reset Strategies for VAV Systems

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 1.4 Control Theory and Application; TC 7.4 Building

Operation Dynamics

Chair: Michael A. Pouchak, PE, Member, Honeywell International,

Golden Valley, MN

Variable air volume (VAV) systems are the most common HVAC systems

in new domestic office buildings. To optimize energy performance of

these systems, set points for static pressure, temperature, outdoor air

intake, and other control points can be reset based on demand indicators

such as zone control loops, zone temperatures, airflow, CO2, and others.

This seminar discusses reset strategies that can be used to optimize

modern VAV systems.

1. A Method of Optimizing VAV Fan Static Pressure Setpoint Using

Model-Based Control

Mark A. Cascia, PE, Member, Siemens Building Technologies, Inc.,

Buffalo Grove, IL

2. Reset Strategies Control Sequences for VAV

Gary L. Odden, Associate Member, Honeywell International, Golden

Valley, MN

3. Supply Air Temperature and Pressure Setpoint Reset in VAV

Systems Based on Zone Demand

Steven T. Taylor, PE, Fellow, Taylor Engineering, LLC, Alameda, CA

SEMINAR 14 (Intermediate)

Sustainable District Energy: University Combined Heat and Power

Systems

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.2 District Energy; TC 1.10 Cogeneration Systems

Chair: Burkley M. Allen, PE, Member, I.C. Thomasson Assoc., Inc.,

Nashville, TN

College and university campuses present an ideal environment for

combining district energy systems with electrical generation to optimize

efficiency and design for sustainability. This seminar looks at campuses

in different parts of the country with differing configurations of

combined heat and power systems. The University of Illinois and

University of Texas at Austin systems feature multi-fuel boilers, steam,

hot water, reciprocating engine and turbine generators, and many other

energy innovations. The seminar concludes with an overview of college

cogeneration systems around the country with an emphasis on sustainable

technology.

1. University of Illinois: CHP on Two Campuses

John Cuttica, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL

2. University of Texas at Austin

Juan M. Ontiveros, PE, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX

3. Survey of CHP on Campuses

Rob Thornton, Member, International District Energy Association,

Westborough, MA

Sunday

January 28, 2007

1:30 p.m.-3:00 p.m.

TRANSACTIONS 3 (Intermediate)

Absorption/Sorption Heat Pumps and Refrigeration Systems

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.3 Absorption and Heat Operated Machines

Chair: Abdi Zaltash, PhD, Member, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,

Oak Ridge, TN

Absorption/sorption heat pumps and chillers play a crucial role in

integrated energy systems that hold promise for greatly improved energy

efficiency. This session presents recent experimental or analytical

studies related to absorption/sorption technologies. Topics include

novel thermally-activated cycles, innovative heat pump/chiller

applications, modeling techniques, and working fluids.

1. Applications of Customized Absorption Heat Pumps with Heating

Capacities Above 500kW (DA-07-008)

Christoph Kren, Christian Keil, Stefan Plura, Michael Radspieler,

Matthias Schicktanz and Christian Schweigler, PhD, ZAE Bayern, Garching,

Germany

2. Designing Sustainable On-Site CHP Systems (DA-07-009)

Milton Meckler, PE, Fellow, Design Build Systems, Los Angeles, CA;

Lucas B. Hyman and Kyle Landis, PE, Member, Goss Engineering, Inc.,

Corona, CA

3. Low Temperature Heat Storage for Solar Heating and Cooling

Applications (DA-07-010)

Christian Schweigler, PhD, Stefan Hiebler, Christian Keil, Holger

Kobel, Christoph Kren and Harald Mehling, PhD, ZAE Bayern, Garching,

Germany

TRANSACTIONS 4 (Intermediate)

Liquid Cooling in the Data Center

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and

Electronic Equipment

Chair: Jeff P. Trower, Member, Data Aire Inc., Orange, CA

While liquid cooling in data centers is controversial and

misunderstood, most experts agree that it is a concept worth

considering. Whether it be at a facility, rack, server or chip level,

liquid cooling is in many cases is the best solution for addressing the

high heat loads in data centers today. This session continues TC

9.9's, work in bringing information to the engineering community on

topics that are becoming more and more critical in the design and

operations of mission critical spaces.

1. Liquid Cooling Strategies (DA-07-011)

Herb Villa, Rittal Corp., Lambertville, NJ

2. Performance of a Rack of Liquid: Cooling Servers (DA-07-012)

Tahir Cader and Levi Westra, Isothermal Systems Research, Liberty

Lake, WA; Andres Marquez, PhD, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,

Richland, WA; Harley McAllister, Isothermal Systems Research, Liberty

Lake, WA; Kevin Regimbal, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,

Richland, WA

SEMINAR 15 (Intermediate)

Energy and Sustainability in Europe

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Associate Societies Alliance

Chair: Branislav Todorovic, PhD, Fellow, University of Belgrade,

Belgrade, Serbia

In Europe there are united and synchronized efforts concerning

energy efficiency, protection of environment and indoor air quality, not

only in technical but in scientific, educational and ethical fields. All

this activity relates to achieving rational energy use and

sustainability. This seminar presents these efforts, results and

experience.

1. Energy Performance Assessment of Existing Non-Residential

Buildings

Constantinos A. Balaras, PhD, PE, Member, National Observatory of

Athens, Athens, Greece

2. Global Space for Sustainable Buildings/HVAC's Science and

Technology: Inextricable Linkae of Engineering Experience, Education,

Ethics and R & D

Marija S. Todorovic, PhD, Member, University of Belgrade, Belgrade,

Serbia

3. Power Supply in Europe: How Sustainable Can It Be?

Peter Novak, PhD, Fellow, Energotech, Ljubljana, Slovenia

4. Good Indoor Environment and Sustainable Development: Are the

Goals Conflicting?

Olli Seppanen, PhD, Fellow, Helsinki University of Technology,

Espoo, Finland

SEMINAR 16 (Basic)

First Time at an ASHRAE Meeting? This Seminar's for You!

Track: Business Management

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Society Program Committee

Chair: Ginger Scoggins, PE, Member, Engineered Designs, Inc.,

Raleigh, NC

OPEN SESSION--No badge required. This seminar familiarizes

first-time meeting attendees with the committee structure of ASHRAE,

networking opportunities within the Society, and ways to get the most

out of ASHRAE meetings.

This seminar introduces new meeting attendees to the events of a

Society meeting--how to get involved in a technical committee, what is

the difference between a transaction session and a seminar, and how to

become part of the meeting program. The role of ASHRAE staff in a

meeting and the events that surround the AHR Expo[R] are explained. And

if you're not having fun yet, the technical tours, guest, and

"special" events (how to have fun at ASHRAE) are discussed.

1. Membership: How to Get the Most Out of an ASHRAE Meeting and

Exposition

Alan C. Veeck, Member, MVA, Inc., Virginia Beach, VA

2. Technical Committees, Standing Committees and Programs

Ginger Scoggins, PE, Member, Engineered Designs, Inc., Raleigh, NC

3. The Fun Side of ASHRAE Meetings

Joe Ferdelman, PE, Member, Heapy Engineering, Dayton, OH

SEMINAR 17 (Advanced)

Innovative Gas-Phase Cleaning Technologies

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.3 Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant

Removal Equipment

Chair: Kyung-Ju Choi, PhD, Member, AAF International, Louisville,

KY

Beyond the conventional sorption technology by activated carbon

media and/or chemicals impregnated for removing gaseous contaminants,

there are various innovative gas-phase cleaning technologies. These

include visible and ultraviolet lights with photocatalysts, and plasma.

Those technologies destroy indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

and/or selected bioaerosols.

1. Visible Light Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene Using Cerium

Doped Titanium Dioxide Catalyst

Sidheswaran Meera, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY

2. Destruction of Airborne Contaminants Using Atmospheric Plasma

Ron Domitrovic, Member, AGT, Knoxville, TN

3. Treating Gas-Phase Contaminant with a Commercial-Scale Prototype

Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor

Dean Tompkins, PhD, Member, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

SEMINAR 18 (Intermediate)

Integrating Simulation into the Building Design Process

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.1 Integrated Building Design

Chair: David F. Shipley, PE, Member, PEng, Marbek, Ottawa, ON,

Canada

Programs like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

and the Canadian Building Incentive Program require simulation in the

design processes by teams that had not previously used it. Teams often

bring in simulation professionals at the end to generate the building

performance prediction. By then, major design decisions are made,

promising savings avenues are closed, and the building may not even

comply with performance goals. Simulation integrated into the process

from the start is a powerful assistant for making good design decisions.

This seminar shows how to change the design process to take best

advantage of simulation and its opportunities.

1. Integrated Design Process: Timing Is Everything

Mike Lubun, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada

2. Energy Modeling for the Early Stages of Design: How to Make a

Real Difference

Paul A. Torcellini, PhD, PE, Member, National Renewable Energy

Laboratory, Golden, CO

3. Integrating Simulation into Design Appropriately, A Case Study

Robert J. Hitchcock, PhD, Member, Lawrence Berkeley National

Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

SEMINAR 19 (Basic)

The Changing Handbook and What to Expect

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Handbook Committee; Technical Activities Committee

Chair: Norm Maxwell, PE, Member, McQuay New York, Great Neck, NY

This seminar discusses the recently published Refrigeration volume

of the Handbook as well as the CD+. The floor is open for comments on

this volume as well as the other volumes of the Handbook. The committee

is always looking for ways to provide more information to our client,

the ASHRAE membership.

1. The Unique Information on the CD+

Norm Maxwell, PE, Member, McQuay New York, Great Neck, NY

2. Making the Handbook More User Friendly

Harvey Brickman, PE, Fellow, Tishman Construction Corp., New York,

NY

3. The TAC Prospective

Frank Mills, Member, Environmental Design Consultants, Leyland,

Lancashire, England

SEMINAR 20 (Intermediate)

The Use of Natural Refrigerants in Water Chilling

Track: Refrigeration

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Refrigeration Committee

Chair: Daniel J. Dettmers, Member, University of Wisconsin-Madison,

Madison, WI

This seminar explores the use of refrigerants--water and

ammonia--for cold water generation, space conditioning, and heat pump

applications (with R-718).

1. Water as Refrigerant in Water Chillers and Heat Pumps

Norbert Muller, PhD, Member, Michigan State University, East

Lansing, MI

2. The Use of Water as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications

on Commercial Feasibility

Douglas Reindl, PhD, PE, Member, University of Wisconsin-Madison,

Madison, WI

3. Low Charge Ammonia Exchangers

Zahid Ayub, Member, Isotherm, Inc., Arlington, TX

Sunday

January 28, 2007

3:15 p.m.-4:45 p.m.

SEMINAR 21 (Basic)

Estate Planning Fundamentals

Track: Business Management

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: ASHRAE Foundation; Research Promotion Committee

Speaker: Bonni Brophy, Executive Director of Presbyterian Village

North Foundation, Dallas, TX

Sponsored by the ASHRAE Foundation, this seminar introduces you to

the basics of estate planning and helps you understand how the latest

tax law (HR4) changes will impact your financial future. You'll

also have the opportunity to ask questions during the session. Join

other ASHRAE members for this lively and informative seminar.

SEMINAR 22 (Intermediate)

European Efforts in Achieving Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Associate Societies Alliance

Chair: Gerald C. Groff, PE, Fellow, Life Member, Groff Associates,

Cazenovia, NY

The European Community and other European countries are

collaborating to achieve the same energy efficiency goals. Europe has a

special project, the Building Energy Performance Directive (EPBD

platform project). This project provides rules for certification of

building energy performance and installed energy equipment. European

countries are implementing the directive based on their needs with

regard to local policy, conditions and interests. The first

implementations are already realized in European countries and showed

first results.

1. European Platform Project: Energy Performance of Buildings

Directive

Zoltan Magyar, PhD, University of Pecs, Boszorkany, Hungary

2. Building Energy Performance: Characteristics and Technical Rules

Thomas Wollstein, Dipl.-Phys. The Association of German

Engineers-VDI, Dusseldorf, Germany

3. Energy Efficiency Improvements in European Countries in

Transition: Example of Serbian Project

Nenad Pavlovic, Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency, Novi Beograd,

Serbia

SEMINAR 23 (Intermediate)

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating Issues

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.8 Geothermal Energy Utilization; TC 9.4 Applied Heat

Pump/Heat Recovery Systems



Chair: Carl F. Huber, PE, Member, WaterFurnace International, Inc.,

Ft. Wayne, IN

With greater emphasis being placed on higher efficiency equipment

due to rising energy costs, this seminar looks at the value of SEER and

HSPF in today's markets. Speakers discuss the reliability of SEER

and HSPF as predictors of seasonal performance, review their limitations

and propose alternative indicators. Detailed SEER simulation results of

California residential and non-residential applications and a

methodology for calculating SEER and HSPF for ground source heat pumps

are presented.

1. SEER and HSPF: A 1970's Rating Method for the 21st Century

Equipment

Steve Kavanaugh, PhD, Member, The University of Alabama,

Tuscaloosa, AL

2. SEER as a Predictor of Seasonal Energy Performance in California

Single Family Residences

Marlin S. Addison, PhD, PE, Member, M.S. Addison & Associates,

Tempe, AZ

3. SEER as Predictor of Seasonal Energy Performance in California

Non-Residential Applications

John M. Hill, PhD, PE, Member, Specialty Engineering, Atlanta, GA

4. Ground Source Seasonal Efficiency Ratings

Daniel Ellis, Member, ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK

Monday

January 29, 2007

7:45 a.m.-9:15 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 5 (Intermediate)

High Density Cooling Issues Update: Part 1

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and

Electronic Equipment

Chair: Kishor K. Khankari, PhD, Member, Fluent, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI

Increasing heat loads in the data center and telecommunication

facilities make the cooling of electronic equipment a challenging task.

This session covers a variety of issues pertinent to the cooling of high

density data centers, telecommunications facilities, and combinations

thereof. Issues include the provision, distribution and control of

adequate airflow, and transitional technologies for cooling.

1. Comparison Between Raised Floor (Underfloor Supply) and

Non-Raised Floor (Overhead Supply) Data Center Designs for High Density

Clusters (DA-07-013)

Roger R. Schmidt, PhD, PE, Member and Madhusudan Iyengar, PhD, IBM

Systems & Technology Group, Poughkeepsie, NY

2. Capture Index: An Airflow-Based Rack Cooling Performance Metric

(DA-07-014)

James W. VanGilder, PE, Member and Saurabh K. Shrivastava, Student

Member, American Power Conversion Corp., Billerica, MA

3. Characterization of a High-Density Data Center (DA-07-015)

Joseph F. Prisco, PE, IBM, Rochester, MN

TRANSACTIONS 6 (Advanced)

Improvement in Computer Modeling of Fenestration Performance

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: TC 4.5 Fenestration

Chair: Hakim Elmahdy, PhD, PE, Member, PEng, National Research

Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada

The determination of the performance of building systems and

components requires a high degree of sophistication in testing protocol

and test facilities. In recent years, computer modeling is being seen as

a viable alternative to physical testing. This session provides the

results of advanced computer modeling of innovative window designs for

application in zero-energy residential housings and a computational

fluid dynamics and conduction model to simulate the heat transfer in

horizontal frames with internal cavities. It also provides the means to

study the solar spectrum and predict the solar heat gain of complex

glazing systems.

1. Advanced Solar Irradiance Model and Procedure for Spectral Solar

Heat Gain Calculation (RP-1143) (DA-07-016)

Christian Gueymard, PhD, Member, Solar Consulting Services,

Colebrook, NH

2. Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction

Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal

Cavities (DA-07-017)

Arild Gustavsen, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,

Trondheim, Norway; Christian Kohler, Member and Dariush Arasteh,

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Arvid Dalehaug,

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

3. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

(DA-07-018)

Dariush Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, Joe Huang, Christian Kohler and

Robin Mitchell, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

TRANSACTIONS 7 (Basic)

Learning from History, It's All Been Done Before: Part 1

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Historical Committee

Chair: Wallace L. Donley, W.L. Donley & Associates, Fresno, CA

Do you think that the engineering challenges facing you in your

current projects are unique? You might be surprised to learn that the

same challenges or versions of them have been addressed--years ago!

Don't repeat history--learn from it! The papers presented in this

session describe how pioneers have addressed and solved challenges with

their unique solutions.

1. Re-Inventing the Wheel in HVAC & R (DA-07-019)

Bernard Nagengast, Member, Sidney, OH

2. Carl Von Linde, Scientist, Inventor, Global Player (DA-07-020)

Irene Reichert, Member, Deutscher Kaelte Verband, Stuttgart,

Germany

3. Heating System of the Roman Baths (DA-07-021)

Tahsin Basaran, PhD, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

SEMINAR 24 (Basic)

Achieving 50% and Beyond Approach to Net-Zero-Energy Use in

Buildings, Part 1

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Technology Council; Advanced Energy Design Guide Steering

Committee

Chair: John W. Mitchell, PhD, Fellow, University of Wisconsin,

Madison, WI

ASHRAE, in cooperation with AIA, IESNA and USGBC, is producing

Advanced Energy Design Guides for the commercial building sector. The

current guides target 30% energy savings relative to buildings designed

to minimum energy standards. The partnership is following this series

with guides that target a 50% and beyond approach to net-zero-energy

use. Existing measures have the potential to produce the desired energy

reductions. An integrated design process is essential for incorporating

the measures. The background information for the Net Zero Energy Use

design guides is described.

1. Net Zero Energy Building Ideas--The Path Towards Net Zero Energy

Use

John W. Mitchell, PhD, Fellow, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

2. What Has Been Done? Case Study Review

David Hewitt, Associate Member, New Buildings Institute, White

Salmon, WA

3. Architectural Perspective as a Bridge to Engineering

Jeff Levine, American Institute of Architects, New York, NY

4. Integrated Design Process--Making it Possible

Jeff Levine, American Institute of Architects, New York, NY

SEMINAR 25 (Intermediate)

HVAC & R Research Seminar 1

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: HVAC & R Research Journal

Chair: Reinhard Radermacher, PhD, Fellow, University of Maryland,

ME Dept, College Park, MD

Authors present summaries of their papers published in the July

2006 and October 2006 issues of ASHRAE's HVAC & R Research.

1. A Method for Tuning Refrigerant Charge in Modeling Off-Design

Performance of Unitary Equipment

Eckhard Groll, PhD, Member, Purdue University, LaFayette, IN

2. Simplified Thermal Model of Spaces Cooled with Combined Chilled

Ceiling and Positive Displacement Ventilation

Nesreen Ghaddar, PhD, Member, American University of Beirut,

Beruit, Lebanon

3. Predicting the Performance of an Active Magnetic Regenerator

Refrigerator Used for Space Cooling and Refrigeration

Kurt Engelbrecht, Member, University of Wisconsin- Madison,

Madison, WI

SEMINAR 26 (Intermediate)

Persistence of Commissioning Savings

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.9 Building Commissioning

Chair: Kenneth C. Peet, PE, Member, LSE Engineering, Inc.,

Louisville, KY

Savings obtained with a variety of energy efficiency measures have

been found to lose persistence and degrade due to multiple causes.

Equipment degradation and failure, lack of maintenance, facility use

changes and overriding the programmed settings remain the primary

mechanisms for losing savings persistence. The degradation time can be a

few months to several years and, in many cases, can exceed 50+ percent.

Also, certain energy efficiency measures have a higher susceptibility to

savings loss. Measurement and verification, automated tools and other

savings persistence methods can help sustain savings.

1. M and V for Persistence of Commissioning Savings

Charlie Culp, PhD, PE, Fellow, Texas A & M University, College

Station, TX

2. Automated Commissioning Tools for Persistence of Commissioning

Savings

Daniel Choiniere, Member, Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ,

Canada

3. Persistence: Keeping Your Savings

David Claridge, PhD, PE, Member, Texas A & M University,

College Station, TX

SEMINAR 27 (Intermediate)

The eGreening of ASHRAE: Practical Solutions to Reduce Burden on

the Environment and Membership

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Electronic Communications Committee

Chair: Mark Hydeman, PE, Fellow, Taylor Engineering, LLC, Alameda,

CA

Which is greener, a standard on green buildings or the fact that it

isn't developed and printed on paper? What is more inclusive, a

meeting held in one spot on the globe, or a meeting that anyone can

attend from their home or office? The Electronic Communications

Subcommittee seeks to improve ASHRAE operations by facilitating the

adoption of electronic media, including distance learning, net meetings,

paperless meetings, a complete makeover of ASHRAE's database,

paperless processing of codes and standards, ASHRAE's Web site and

others.

1. Member Info On-the-Fly: The New Database and You!

Marilyn Listvan, PhD, Member, Listvan & Assoc., Consulting,

Edina, MN

2. Paperless Meetings: You Can Do It!

Bruce Billedeaux, PE, Member, Maverick Technologies, Portage, MI

3. eRegion Activities

Rick A. Larson, Member, Trane Co., Lexington, KY

4. eScheduler and Other Practical eASHRAE Tools

David J. Branson, PE, Member, Compliance Services Group, Inc.,

Lubbock, TX

FORUM 1 (Advanced)

The Future of Standard 62.1?

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Standards Committee; SSPC 62.1

Moderator: Richard D. Hermans, PE, Member, Center for Energy and

Environment, Minneapolis, MN

Should it be a code minimum only? Should it be divided into

good/better/best? What are the problems/challenges that confront users

of this standard in its current form? Bring your ideas and your

concerns, we want to hear them all. The moderator will make a very short

introduction then there will be open mike for an off-the-record

discussion.

Monday

January 29, 2007

9:30 a.m.-10:30 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 8 (Intermediate)

High Density Cooling Issues Update: Part 2

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and

Electronic Equipment

Chair: Kishor K. Khankari, PhD, Member, Fluent, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI

Increasing heat loads in data center and telecommunication

facilities make the cooling of electronic equipment a challenging task.

This session covers a variety of issues that are pertinent to the

cooling of high density data centers, telecommunications facilities, and

combinations thereof. Issues include the provision, distribution and

control of adequate airflow, and transitional technologies for cooling.

1. Best Practices for High Density Air Cooled Data Centers

(DA-07-022)

Madhusudan Iyengar, PhD and Roger R. Schmidt, PhD, PE, Member, IBM,

Poughkeepsie, NY

2. Prediction of Distributed Air Leakage in Raised Floor Data

Centers (DA-07-023)

Kailash C. Karki, PhD, Amir Radmehr and Suhas V. Patankar,

Innovative Research, Inc., Plymouth, MN

TRANSACTIONS 9 (Basic)

Learning from History, It's All Been Done Before: Part 2

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Historical Committee

Chair: Wallace L. Donley, W.L. Donley & Associates, Fresno, CA

Do you think that the engineering challenges facing you in your

current projects are unique? You might be surprised to learn that the

same challenges or versions of them have been addressed years ago!

Don't repeat history learn from it! The papers presented in this

session describe how pioneers have addressed and solved challenges with

their unique solutions.

1. Occurrence of Humid Air Diagrams within a Short Period at Three

Distant Places on the Globe (DA-07-024)

Branislav Todorovic, PhD, Member, University of Belgrade, Belgrade

2. Tobacco Smoke and Haze Control in the Houston Astrodome

(DA-07-025)

Preston McNall, PhD, PE, Member, Overland Park, KS

3. The Work of Frank J. Dean Jr.: A Pioneer in Controls and His

Contribution to Our Industry (DA-07-026)

Raymond H. Dean, PhD, PE, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS;

Bradley A. Crews, Wattmaster Controls Inc., Parkville, MO; Michael M.

Roberts, Life Member, HVAC Systems, Inc., Kansas City, KS; James A.

Reese, PE, Life Member, Walnut Manufacturing LLC, Kansas City, MO

SEMINAR 28 (Intermediate)

Energy Efficient Design for Outside Air Systems: Part 2

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.12 Desiccant and Sorption Technology; TC 8.10

Mechanical Dehumidification Equipment and Heat Pipes

Chair: Andrew L. Mongar, Member, American Genius Corp., Lancaster,

PA

Conditioning outside air normally adds to the energy consumption of

a system. Standards for outside air are increasing as is their

proportion of the load. Technologies used in conjunction with

compression equipment can considerably reduce the energy requirements,





such as indirect evaporative cooling, air-to-air exchange, and desiccant

dehumidification. This seminar features a review paper and practical

examples of highly efficient systems.

1. DX DOAS and Energy Efficient Enhancements

Harry Milliken, Member, Desert Aire Corp., Lewiston, ME

2. Flat Plate Total Enthalpy Recovery

Steven J. Slayzak, Member, NREL, Golden, CO

SEMINAR 29 (Intermediate)

HVAC & R Research Seminar 2

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: HVAC & R Research Journal

Chair: Reinhard Radermacher, PhD, Fellow, University of Maryland,

ME Dept, CEEE, College Park, MD

Authors present summaries of their papers published in the July

2006 and October 2006 issues of ASHRAE's HVAC & R Research.

1. Some Quantitative Relations Between Indoor Environmental Quality

and Work Performance or Health

Olli Seppanen, PhD, Fellow, Helsinki University Of Technology,

Espoo, Finland

2. Silicon Microchannel Cooling for High Power Chips

Roger R. Schmidt, PhD, PE, Member, IBM Corp., Poughkeepsie, NY

SEMINAR 30 (Advanced)

Lubricant Issues with Immiscible Lubricants

Track: Refrigeration

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 3.4 Lubrication; TC 8.1 Positive Displacement

Compressors

Chair: Curt R. Slayton, PE, Member, Consulting Services

International, LLC, Louisville, KY

The use of immiscible or partially miscible lubricants, such as

mineral oil or alkylbenzene, with HFC refrigerants, may be a viable

option to traditional miscible oil/refrigerant systems. In immiscible or

partially miscible systems, oil returned to the compressor is the major

issue, particularly in systems with large liquid line receivers. This

seminar discusses oil migration in refrigerant systems using immiscible

lubricants, and alternate technologies for low temperature

refrigeration.

1. A Comparison of Immiscible and Miscible Lubricants in HFC

Refrigerant

Scott Gustafson, PhD, PE, Member, Shrieve Chemical Co., The

Woodlands, TX

2. Utilization of Lubricant Immiscibility to Assist Oil Management

in HFC Systems

Joseph Nigro, Member, CPI Engineering Services, Inc., Midland, MI

SEMINAR 31 (Advanced)

Method for Resolving Fan/Motor Vibration Problems

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 5.1 Fans; TC 5.9 Enclosed Vehicular Facilities

Chair: Asesh Raychaudhuri, PE, Member, FMC-NA, Sharon, MA

Discussion includes finite element techniques to investigate the

vibration response characteristics of a typical fan/motor assembly used

in air conditioning units. Results from models with different

combinations of solid and beam elements for the rotor shaft and solid

and lumped mass elements for the rotor mass are compared to each other

and to experimental results. Research results of the effects of bearing

constraints applied to the rotor shaft are discussed.

1. Method for Resolving Fan/Motor Vibration Problem in

Air-Conditioning Units Douglas Reynolds, PhD, Member, University of

Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV

2. Effects of Shaft Rotation on Resonant Frequencies

John Murphy, PhD, Member, Jogram Inc., New Philadelphia, OH

FORUM 2 (Intermediate)

What is the Viability of Renewable Energy Use for High Rise

Buildings?

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H2)

Sponsor: TC 9.12 Tall Buildings

Moderator: Dennis J. Wessel, PE, Fellow, Karpinski Engineering,

Cleveland, OH

The use of onsite renewable energy can obtain three points toward

the LEED rating of a new building. This is almost 12% of the points

required for a minimum LEED certification level. In a time when

sustainability is a significant issue in the design of a new building,

even a non-LEED rated facility, the use of renewable energy can play a

significant role in the conservation of new energy that must be

delivered to a building site. How can this technology be specifically

applied to a high rise building?

FORUM 3 (Intermediate)

What Skill Based Components are Required for Certifying HVAC

Professionals for Health Care Facility Design?

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: ASHRAE Certification Committee

Moderator: Anand K. Seth, Member, Sebesta Blomberg &

Associates, Woburn, MA

ASHRAE's Strategic Plan calls for the Society to be "a

world-class provider of education and certification programs." The

first program to be developed under this strategic plan direction is a

certification in Health Care Facility Design. The purpose of this forum

is to discuss potential topics to be included in the body of knowledge

in order to ensure that it is complete and meets the needs of the design

professionals who are expected to pursue this certification.

Monday

January 29, 2007

10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

TRANSACTIONS 10 (Intermediate)

Advances in Energy Saving Technologies for Commercial Refrigeration

Equipment and Systems

Track: Refrigeration

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 10.7 Commercial Food and Beverage Cooling Display and

Storage

Chair: Van D. Baxter, PE, Member, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,

Oak Ridge, TN

The first paper in this session presents a critical review of

cascade systems for low temperature refrigeration, including analyses of

these systems with carbon dioxide as the low temperature fluid and R404A

and a variety of natural refrigerants as the high temperature fluid. The

second paper offers a description of a model for solid door refrigerated

cabinets intended for use in evaluating alternative designs for

pull-down rate and energy consumption.

1. Cascade Systems: Past, Present and Future (DA-07-027)

Pradeep K. Bansal, PhD, Member, The University of Auckland,

Auckland, New Zealand; Sanjeev Jain, PhD, Member, India Institute of

Technology, Delhi, India

2. A Model for Solid Door Refrigerated Display Cabinet (DA-07-028)

Richard J. Love, PhD, Massey University, Palmerston North, New

Zealand

TRANSACTIONS 11 (Intermediate)

Integrated Building Design and Building Vulnerability

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H2)

Sponsor: TC 7.1 Integrated Building Design

Chair: George E. Wells, III, PE, Member, Agape Engineering,

Hockessin, DE

This session explores an integrated building design approach to

address building vulnerability issues. Material presented focuses on

tools, techniques, and system solutions that can be implemented to

respond to bioterrorism and extreme indoor air quality events.

1. Protecting Buildings Against Bioterrorism: Review of Guidance

and Tools (DA-07-029)

F.E. Yeboah, F. Chowdhury, S. Ilias, PhD, PE and Harmohindar Singh,

PhD, PE, Fellow, NC A & T State University, Greensboro, NC; L.

Sparks, PhD, US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, Research

Triangle Park, NC

2. An Experimental and Modeling Assessment of Room Air Cleaners for

Building Protection (DA-07-030)

Vladimir Kogan, Chris Harto and David Hesse, Battelle Memorial

Institute, Columbus, OH; Leslie Sparks, US EPA, Research Triangle Park,

NC

3. Requirements of a Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Methodology

for Reducing Vulnerability of Building Occupants to Extreme IAQ Events

(DA-07-031)

T. Agami Reddy, PhD, PE, Member and William P. Bahnfleth, PhD, PE,

Fellow, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

TRANSACTIONS 12 (Intermediate)

Moisture Management in Energy Efficient Homes

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 1.12 Moisture Management in Buildings; TC 4.4 Building

Materials and Building Envelope Performance

Chair: Carl N. Lawson, Member, Systems Solutions Consultants,

Zephyrhills, FL

Modern residential construction practices have improved energy

efficiency, but also resulted in conditions that may be conducive to

rapid microbial growth. By improving the understanding of the

susceptibility of various construction practices and building assemblies

to mold growth, and communicating this understanding to affected

stakeholders, improved mold loss prevention decisions can be made. This

session provides information and recommendations on mold risk reduction

strategies for energy efficient residential buildings. The discussion

includes laboratory data and analytical modeling of energy efficient

wall assembly options, and a three-part mold risk reduction strategy for

builders.

1. Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Window Installation Methods

in Stucco Wall Assemblies (DA-07-032)

Neil P. Leslie, PE, Member, Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines,

IL

2. Evaluating Stucco Wall Systems Using Hygrothermal Modeling

(DA-07-033)

Christine E. Walker, PhD, Associate Member and Douglas Kosar,

Member, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL

3. Mold Risk Reduction Strategies for Builders (DA-07-034)

Lewis G. Harriman, Member, Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH; Neil P.

Leslie, Member, Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL

SEMINAR 32 (Basic)

Achieving 50% and Beyond Approach to Net-Zero-Energy Use in

Buildings: Part 2

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Technology Council; Advanced Energy Design Guide Steering

Committee

Chair: John W. Mitchell, PhD, Fellow, University of Wisconsin,

Madison, WI

ASHRAE, in cooperation with AIA, IESNA and USGBC, is producing

Advanced Energy Design Guides for the commercial building sector. The

current guides target 30% energy savings relative to buildings designed

to minimum energy standards. The partnership is following this series

with guides that target a 50% and beyond approach to net zero-energy

use. Existing measures have the potential to produce the desired energy

reductions. An integrated design process is essential for incorporating

the measures. The background information for the Net Zero Energy Use

design guides is described.

1. Daylighting -- Advanced Lighting, Daylighting, & Controls

Stephen Selkowitz, Fellow, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Berkeley, CA

2. Distribution Systems -- Air

Wayne Reedy, Member, Carrier Corp., Indianapolis, IN

3. Distribution Systems -- Water

Steve Kavanaugh, PhD, Fellow, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL

and Harvey Sachs, PhD, Member, ACEEE, Washington, DC

4. HVAC / Ventilation

Michael Brandemuehl, PhD, Member, University of Colorado, Boulder,

CO

SEMINAR 33 (Intermediate)

Building Automation Systems for Hospitals

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 1.4 Control Theory and Application; TC 9.6 Healthcare

Facilities

Chair: Frank Shadpour, PE, Fellow, SC Engineers, Inc., San Diego,

CA

The reliability and compatibility of HVAC control and building

automation systems for hospitals and healthcare facilities is critical.

The proper sequence and operation of building automation results in

significant energy savings while providing optimum environmental control

for critical areas, such as operating rooms, intensive care areas and

patient rooms. This seminar focuses on the installation and upgrading of

building automation systems for existing and new hospitals. It also

addresses building automation systems for energy efficient hospitals and

the utilization of open DDC communication systems, such as BACnet, for

reliability, energy efficiency and ease of operation.

1. Building Automation, HVAC Design and Energy Management for

Hospitals in an Expensive Energy Market

Timothy Jacoby, Rady Children's Hospital and Health Center,

San Diego, CA

2. Building Automation Retrofits and Expansions in Existing

Hospitals

Bob King, Climatec Building Technologies Group, Phoenix, AZ

3. BACnet for Hospitals

H. Michael Newman, Fellow, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

SEMINAR 34 (Basic)

Design and Energy Considerations for Justice Facilities

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TG9.JF Justice Facilities; TC 9.8 Large Building

Air-Conditioning Applications

Chair: E. Douglas Fitts, PE, Member, St. Louis County Government,

Clayton, MO

Justice facilities have special design and energy considerations,

such as safety and security of the inmates, correctional officers,

staff, and visitors. This seminar addresses design and energy

considerations for conception, design, construction, and commissioning

of the new facility or the retrofit of an existing one.

1. Forensic Laboratory Design Considerations

Gerald G. Williams, PE, Member, Burns & McDonnell, St. Louis,

MO

2. Humidity Control Problems and Solutions Case Study

Kenneth Gill, PE, Member, JJA Consultants, Dallas, TX

3. Energy Use Considerations in Justice Facilities Design

Robert Cox, PE, Member, PWI Consulting Engineers, Durham, NC

4. Special Considerations for Smoke Control

Jeff J. Traylor, Member, EMCOR Facilities Services, Inc., Durham,

NC

SEMINAR 35 (Advanced)

Fire Suppression, Detection and Instrumentation in Tunnels

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 5.9 Enclosed Vehicular Facilities; TC 5.6 Control of

Fire and Smoke, TC 5.1 Fans

Chair: Paul C. Miclea, PE, Member, Earth Tech, Inc., Oakland, CA

This seminar addresses current issues in managing risks in tunnels

and enclosed facilities using engineered systems for fire detection and

instrumentation, allowing for effective fire suppression to save life

and assets. Fire safety in rail and road tunnels is more challenging

than ever due to specific infrastructure, increased traffic and

insufficient safety rules. Accurate detection resistant to false alarms

is essential for fire protection, providing early warnings of fire

incidents at initial stage, allowing activation of emergency systems.

Authority having jurisdiction must have consistent, dedicated

participation in confirming proper functioning of detection equipment

and fire alarm system.

1. An Overview of Detection Methods in Tunnels

Jeffrey S. Tubbs, PE, Member, Arup Fire, Northbridge, MA

2. An Overview of the Research Project to Investigate the

Performance of Fire Detection Systems in Roadway Tunnels

Ahmed Kashef, PhD, PE, Member, National Research Council Canada,

Ottawa, ON, Canada

3. Current Trends in Fire Detection, Instrumentation and

Suppression in Rail and Road Tunnels

Paul C. Miclea, PE, Member, EARTH TECH, INC., Oakland, CA

4. Commissioning Fire Alarm Systems for Enclosed Vehicular

Facilities

Sean E. Cassady, PE, Member, HNTB, Bellevue, WA

SEMINAR 36 (Intermediate)

Multi-Chiller Sequencing: Strategies for Sustainability

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.2 Centrifugal Machines; TC 7.6 Systems Energy

Utilization

Chair: Stephen W. Duda, PE, Member, Ross & Baruzzini, Inc., St.

Louis, MO

Suppose you operate a chiller plant with more than one chiller. How

do you know when to turn successive chillers on or off? Should you run

one at full capacity, or two at half capacity? What if some, but not

all, of your chillers have VFDs? What if your chillers are of unequal

size, efficiency, or age? How can you determine the most

energy-efficient combination at any given time? These questions and more

are addressed in this seminar. Speakers represent the consulting

engineer, the owner/operator, and the performance contractor

perspectives.

1. Multi-Chiller Sequencing: The Design Engineer's Perspective

William I. Nelson, PE, GLHN Architects & Engineers Inc.,

Tucson, AZ

2. Multi-Chiller Sequencing: The Owner/Operator's Perspective

Vinod P. Gupta, PE, Member, 3M Co., St. Paul, MN

3. Multi-Chiller Sequencing: The Performance Contractor's

Perspective

R. Alan Spence, PE, Member, EMCOR Facilities Services, Arlington,

VA

Monday

January 29, 2007

11:00 a.m.-12:30 p.m.

SEMINAR 1

Dallas Convention Center (Basic)

Back To Basics: A Practical Guide to Vibration Control

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C141, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 2.6 Sound and Vibration Control; TC 2.7 Seismic and

Wind Restraint Design

Chair: Robert Simmons, PE, Member, Amber/Booth, Houston, TX

HVAC & R equipment can be a considerable source of

objectionable vibration and vibration induced noise in buildings.

Building owners' and tenants' ever increasing demand for a

comfortable and productive workspace requires vibration control issues

be addressed. Lack of attention to vibration isolation at the beginning

will result in complaints and costly fixes. This program will present

why vibration from equipment is a problem, vibration isolation theory,

vibration isolation systems, and some practical installation guidelines.

1. Basics of HVAC Vibration Isolation

Mark Schaffer, PE, Member, Schaffer Acoustics, Inc., Pacific

Palisades, CA

2. A Few Revealing Case Studies

Reginald Keith, PE, Member, Hoover & Keith, Inc., Houston, TX

3. Application of Wire Rope and Elastomeric Isolators

Peter Lindsay, PE, The VMC Group, Bloomingdale, NJ

SEMINAR 2

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Design Alternatives for Short Circuit Commercial Kitchen Hood

Applications

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C144, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 5.10 Kitchen Ventilation

Chair: Randy J. Urness, Member, Greenheck, Schofield, WI

Over the years engineers have sought ways to design energy

efficient kitchen ventilation systems. Using short circuit hoods to

overcome high exhaust volumes required by codes is one of those methods.

In recent years, ASHRAE research and independent studies have shown that

other design alternatives are more energy efficient and cost effective.

This seminar includes design alternatives and the recent efforts to

evaluate the effectiveness of short circuit hoods versus these

alternatives.

1. Origin and History of Short Circuit Hoods

Robert L. Utech, Member, Greenheck, Schofield, WI

2. Laboratory Testing and Comparison of Short Circuit Hoods to

Exhaust Only Hoods

Stephen L. Brown, Member, LC Systems, Dublin, OH

3. A Case Study on Replacing Short Circuit Hoods

Derek W. Schrock, Member, Halton Co., Scottsville, KY

4. Make-up Air Alternatives to Short Circuit Hoods

Doug Horton, D.J. Horton and Associates, Inc., Lombard, IL

SEMINAR 3

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Distinguished Lecturer Series: Worst Practice Lessons for Future

Quality

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C150, Ground Level

Sponsor: Society Program Committee

Speaker: Richard H. Rooley, Presidential Member, FREng, Rooley

Consultants, Stoke Poges, Bucks, England

Energy efficiency depends on good building practice.

Dissatisfaction is based on technical and procedural problems both of

which are a result of human failings. Triggers for failures in a

building leading to potential litigation are remarkably similar.

Failings to achieve projected energy efficiency can result from an

inability to design and manage the interface among client, manufacturer,

designer, contractor, engineer and architect even though each separate

activity is carried out in accordance with good practice. This seminar

addresses the pitfalls which must be overcome, including in

commissioning and maintenance.

SEMINAR 4

Dallas Convention Center (Advanced)

Energy Efficient Ventilation Systems

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C145, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 5.8 Industrial Ventilation Systems; TC 5.5 Air-to-Air

Energy Recovery

Chair: Alfred W. Woody, PE, Fellow, Ventilation/Energy

Applications, PLLC, Rochester Hills, MI

New and different approaches have been developed that enhance

energy recovery and energy savings for industrial HVAC systems. This

seminar presents strategies that are economical to install and provide a

significant reduction of energy use when compared to traditional

systems. Information presented here is proposed for inclusion in the

make-up air section of Chapter 31 of the 2008 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC

Systems and Equipment.

1. A New Approach to Energy Recovery for Make-Up Air Units

Wayne M. Lawton, PE, Member, Lentz Engineering Associates, Inc.,

Sheboygan Falls, WI

2. Energy Efficient Indirect Evaporative Cooling In High Wet Bulb

Climates: Case Studies of Industrial Applications

Leon E. Shapiro, Member, VRTX Technologies LLC, Las Vegas, NV

Monday

January 29, 2007

1:00 p.m.-2:30 p.m.

SEMINAR 5

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Stay Cool and Green: New Innovations and Case Histories with

Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C150, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 5.7 Evaporative Cooling

Chair: Leon E. Shapiro, Member, VRTX Technologies LLC, Las Vegas,

NV

Sustainability, energy efficiency, green buildings, resource

conservation, and natural refrigerants are all concepts that have become

increasingly important to ASHRAE members and their clients. Indirect

evaporative cooling/heating systems provide design professionals and end

users with reliable tools to help meet the goals that these concepts

engender. This seminar will provide valuable information on new

innovations in indirect evaporative technologies and designs, and case

histories to illustrate how and where these technologies have been

successfully used.

1. New Concepts Using Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Nicholas H. Des Champs, PhD, PE, Fellow, Des Champs Technologies,

Buena Vista, VA

2. Indirect Evaporative Cooling In Harsh Water Environments

Bryan Im, Member, Norman S. Wright Mechanical, Las Vegas, NV

3. Indirect Evaporative Heat Pipe System for Laboratory Fume Hood

Exhaust

William R. Kimball, PE, Fellow, McFall Konkel & Kimball

Engineers, Englewood, CO

SEMINAR 6

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Sustainable Ventilation Systems for Commercial and Institutional

Buildings

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C144, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 5.5 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery

Chair: Gregory M. Dobbs, PhD, Member, United Technologies Corp.,

East Hartford, CT

Devices for recovering the energy used for conditioning ventilation

air are available using several distinctly different technologies and

are a key part of sustainable design for green buildings. Standards such

as ASHRAE 90.1 are increasingly requiring such devices in the minimum

configuration. This seminar will review the choices and some case

studies of applying ventilation energy recovery to specific building

sectors and the challenges for specific situations.

1. Custom Energy Recovery Unit Design for Commercial and

Institutional Applications

Paul Pieper, PE, Member, UTC Canada Corp., Laval, PQ, Canada

2. EPA's SAVES Software Tool Demonstrates the Value of ERV for

Schools

Bob Thompson, Member, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

3. Energy Recovery in Special Situations

Gregory M. Dobbs, Member, United Technologies Corp., East Hartford,

CT

SEMINAR 7

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Conditioning Schools

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C141, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 9.4 Applied Heat Pump/Heat Recovery Systems

Chair: Jeff K. Smith, Member, Georgia Power Co., McDonough, GA

This seminar looks at the success of using ground-source heat pumps

in schools. Current research and completed installations are discussed.

The goal is to show that new installations and retrofits are valuable

methods for improving the energy efficiency of schools and at the same

time improving sustainability.

1. Putting Dollars In School Board Budgets: The Ground Source

Solution

Kirk T. Mescher, PE, Member, CM Engineering, Columbia, MO

2. Ground Source Heat Pumps in Las Vegas Schools

Cary Smith, Sound Geothermal Corp., Sandy, UT

3. Design Considerations for GSHP Systems and Schools

James G. MacMillan, PE, Member, Karpinski Engineering, Cleveland,

OH

SEMINAR 8

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

What's New in BACnet?

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C145, Ground Level

Sponsor: SSPC 135; TC 1.4 Control Theory and Application

Chair: Steven T. Bushby, Member, National Institute of Standards

and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

BACnet has been an ASHRAE standard for more than ten years. It is

now recognized worldwide and has been adopted in Europe by ISO, and is a

national standard in more than 30 countries. The standard continues to

grow and evolve to meet the increasingly complex needs of facility

managers. This seminar provides an update on new emerging BACnet

capabilities, including Web services and building security.

1. BACnet Web Services

Stuart Donaldson, Honeywell, Redmond, WA

2. Building Physical Access Control Using BACnet

Hans J. Mundt, Siemens Building Technologies, Karlsruhe, Germany

3. Securing BACnet Networks

David Robin, Member, Automated Logic Corp., Kennesaw, GA

Monday

January 29, 2007

3:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.

PUBLIC SESSION

Dallas Convention Center--Free Admission

Strategies for Low Energy Efficient Buildings: What Does It Take?

Dallas Convention Center, C147, Ground Level

Sponsor: Society Program Committee

Chair: C. Brian Wandling, PE, Member, Control Specialists Inc.,

Evansville, IN

Buildings fundamentally impact people's lives and the health

of our planet. How we design, construct, renovate, and operate buildings

today impacts what happens to future generations. Energy efficiency is

of great importance, and sustainable buildings help us achieve many

environmental objectives. This public session looks at several projects,

what is necessary for designing a low-energy building, and the outcome

of those strategies.

1. McKinney Office Building

David Hale, Associate Member, HDR Architecture, Dallas, TX

2. New York Times Building

John E. Bredehorst, PE, Flack + Kurtz, Inc., New York, NY

3. Lessons Learned from Low-Energy Buildings

Paul A. Torcellini, Member, National Renewable Energy Laboratory,

Golden, CO

4. Thermal Storage System in a Deregulated Market

Kenneth M. Fulk, Member, Reed, Wells, Benson and Co., Dallas, TX

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

7:45 a.m.-9:15 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 13 (Advanced)

Third Bi-Annual Symposium on Innovations and Advances in Air

Distribution

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 5.3 Room Air Distribution; TC 4.10 Indoor Environmental

Modeling

Chair: Mohammad H. Hosni, PhD, Fellow, Kansas State University,

Manhattan, KS

Technical papers dealing with innovations and advances in air

distribution technologies, such as task ambient conditioning, under

floor air distribution, and advanced diffusers, are invited for

submission. Manuscripts dealing with numerical simulations or

experimental measurements of air distribution in room, aircraft cabin,

confined spaces, and relevant topics will be accepted as well.

1. Use of Electronically Commutated Motors (ECM) in Air Terminal

Units (DA-07-035)

Kerstin Lesley Kenty, MetalAire, Clearwater, FL

2. Air Distribution in Rooms with a Fan Driven Convector

(DA-07-036)

Tine Larsen, PhD, Rob H.W. Bindels, Lukasz Michalak, Michal

Milewski and Peter V. Nielsen, PhD, Fellow, Aalborg University, Aalborg,

Denmark

3. A New Idea That is 40 Years Old--Air Curtain Hospital Operating

Room Systems (DA-07-037)

Daniel Int-Hout, Member and Gerry Cook, Krueger, Tucson, AZ

SEMINAR 37 (Intermediate)

A Walk on the Thermal Side: Moving CHP into the Mainstream

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.3 Absorption and Heat Operated Machines; TC 1.10

Cogeneration Systems

Chair: Srinivas Garimella, PhD, Member, George W. Woodruff School

of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA

Recent developments in distributed generation (DG) technologies

have opened new opportunities for combined cooling, heating, and power

systems that can be used in buildings. DG, in combination with thermally

activated (TA) technologies that use waste heat for heating purposes or

thermally driven absorption cooling, provide important opportunities for

CHP systems to be a viable technology for buildings. This seminar

presents current experience and system design optimization to provide

the industry with an important update on this promising technology.

1. Single-Stage Chiller Integration with a Reciprocating Engine at

Normandie Casino in Granada, California

Richard Sweetser, Member, EXERGY Partners Corp., Herndon, VA

2. Laboratory Testing of a Modular Hybrid Chiller with a 330 kW

Lean-Burn Engine

Timothy C. Wagner, United Technologies Research Center, East

Hartford, CT

3. Compact Packaged Absorption System Integration at the University

of Maryland

Reinhard Radermacher, PhD, Member, Dept. of ME, University of

Maryland, College Park, MD

SEMINAR 38 (Basic)

Applications of Radiant Systems

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.5 Radiant Space Heating and Cooling

Chair: Kamel Haddad, PhD, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON,

Canada

There has been an increased interest recently in designing

low-energy HVAC systems. Radiant-based systems can achieve the desired

heating and cooling at a lower operating temperature than conventional

all air systems, and their popularity in North America is increasing to

meet the higher demand for energy-efficient performance. This seminar

presents some recent applications of radiant systems.

1. Thinking Out of the Box: Projects Other Than Radiant

Floor/Ceiling Systems

Tom Meyer, Member, Green Mechanical Council, Neenah, WI

2. Radiant Cooling of a Large Building in a Humid East Coast City

Peter Simmonds, PhD, Fellow, IBE Consulting Engineers, Sherman

Oaks, CA

3. The Conceptual Design Process of Radiant Systems within an

Integrated Design Environment

Tim McGinn, PEng, Member, Cohos Evamy, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

SEMINAR 39 (Intermediate)

Case Studies in Humidity Control: Part 2

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 1.12 Moisture Management in Buildings; TC 9.1 Large

Building Air-Conditioning Applications, TC 5.10 Kitchen Ventilation

Chair: Elia Sterling, Member, Theodor Sterling Assoc., LTD,

Vancover, BC, Canada

The session offers case studies in humidity control based on the

personal experiences of the presenters. The session leaders will speak

about the issues that confronted them and how they solved the problems.

1. Dedicated Outdoor Air Restaurant Case Study

Stephen L. Brown, Member, LCSystems, Inc., Dublin, OH

2. Temperature and Humidity Control in Surgery Rooms

John Murphy, Member, Trane Co., La Crosse, WI

3. Comparison of Desiccant and DX in Fast Food Restaurants

Rodney H. Lewis, PE, Fellow, Rodney H. Lewis Assoc., Inc., Houston,

TX

SEMINAR 40 (Intermediate)

Environmental Health: Particulate Matter Sources, Health Effects

and Control Strategies

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Environmental Health Committee; TC 2.4 Particulate Air

Contaminants and Removal Equipment

Chair: Wane A. Baker, PE, Member, CIH, Michaels Engineering, La

Crosse, WI

New research has introduced fascinating, critically important, and

sometimes contradictory information about the importance of indoor

particulate matter. Inhalable, respirable, fine, ultra-fine: what do

these terms mean and why should I care? What are the potential impacts

on human health? Where does this stuff come from? What can I do about

reducing or controlling particulate levels? Do the new "air

purification" systems really work? Get answers to these questions

and more from three experts in the field.

1. The Nature of Particulates: Characteristics and Sources

Jeffrey A. Siegel, PhD, Member, The University of Texas at Austin,

Austin, TX

2. Human Health Effects of Inhaled Particulate Matter

Wayne R. Thomann, Member, Duke University Medical Center, Durham,

NC

3. Particulate Control: From Fundamentals to Today

Shelly L. Miller, PhD, Member, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

SEMINAR 41 (Intermediate)

Recent Developments in Modeling Hazardous Pollutants Near Buildings

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration

Chair: John J. Carter, Member, Cermak Peterka Petersen, Inc., Fort

Collins, CO

Predicting airflow around buildings, and how pollutants released in

that flow are transported, is a complicated problem that can drastically

affect building design and performance. Predictive modeling research and

the development of equipment and techniques to minimize pollutant

re-entering the building is a continuous endeavor. This seminar presents

some of the latest developments in this field.

1. Full-Scale Modeling of Exhaust Dispersion Around Buildings and

ASHRAE Predictions

Ted Stathopoulos, PhD, Member, Concordia University, Montreal, PQ,

Canada

2. Transit Station Fires--Separation of Exhausts and Intakes:

Modeling and Solution Concepts

Ray Sinclair, PhD, Member, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc.,

Guelph, ON, Canada

3. Issues in Modeling Exhaust Dilution

Ronald L. Petersen, PhD, Member, Cermak Peterka Petersen, Inc.,

Fort Collins, CO

4. CFD Simulation Developments and Evaluation Studies: Atmospheric

Boundary Layers and Pollutant Transport and Dispersion within Ambient

Urban Building Environments

Alan Huber, PhD, NOAA-EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

SEMINAR 42 (Intermediate)

Saving Capital and Operating Costs using TES

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: TC 6.9 Thermal Storage

Chair: John Dunlap, PE, Member, Dunlap & Partners, Richmond, VA

Thermal energy storage is well established as a technology used to

shift electrical demand loads, but owners and engineers often don't

take full advantage of its potential to save on capital costs as well as

operating costs. This seminar presents actual case studies to illustrate

the benefits of thermal energy storage.

1. Case Studies of Operating and Capital Cost Savings Using Chilled

Water and Low Temperature Fluid TES

John Andrepont, PE, Member, The Cool Solutions Co., Lisle, IL

2. Case Study of an Ice Thermal Storage System

Ram Narayanamurthy, Member, Ice Energy, Loveland, CO

3. Saving Capital and Operating Costs using TES

John Dunlap, PE, Member, John Dunlap & Partners, Richmond, VA

SEMINAR 43 (Advanced)

Trends in Laboratory Design: Convergence

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.10 Laboratory Systems

Chair: J. Patrick Carpenter, PE, Member, PEng, Vanderweil

Engineers, Princeton, NJ

Laboratory designs continue to rapidly evolve because of energy,

safety/code, cost and flexibility pressures. This seminar discusses a

series of developing and sometimes conflicting trends seeking increased

energy effectiveness, safety, and flexibility while providing improved

comfort and more precise environmental control. The specific

interactions of how building/mechanical codes, open-plan lab concepts

and airflow requirements are evolving are addressed. Equally important,

each discussion analyzes how fundamental differences in lab types and

activities impact the characterization and design options for labs. The

functional and regulatory constraints are analyzed with respect to

budget, operational and future flexibility objectives.

1. Codes: Evolution of International Building/Mechanical Codes with

Lab Design Standards

Kenneth W. Kretchman, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

2. Space Planning: Evolution of Open Plan Lab Concepts and their

Impacts on Safety

W. Malcolm Barksdale and Emil Sandru, PhD, PE, Member, Research

Facilities Design, San Diego, CA

3. Airflows: Evolution of Energy Impact of Designing for Dilution

versus Cooling versus Exhaust

J. Patrick Carpenter, PE, Member, Vanderweil Engineers, Princeton,

NJ

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

9:30 a.m.-10:30 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 14 (Advanced)

Advances in Measurement and Modeling of Indoor Environmental

Quality of Animal Buildings, Part 1

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.2 Plant and Animal Environment

Chair: Aijun Wang, PhD, Associate, University of Illinois at

Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL

Concentrated, large-scale animal feeding operations create

significant challenges in controlling air emissions and maintaining

indoor environmental quality. Many ASHRAE members are involved in design

and troubleshooting of environmental quality systems for animal

facilities, and research developments in these areas have been ongoing

efforts. This symposium, sponsored by ASHRAE TC2.2 Plant and Animal

Environment, includes papers related to advances in measurement,

modeling, and mitigation technologies for indoor environmental quality

of animal facilities.

1. Evaluating RNG [K]-[E] Models Using PIV Data for Airflow in

Animal Buildings at Different Ventilation Rates (DA-07-038)

Huawei Sun, PhD, Associate and Lingying Zhao, PhD, Member, The Ohio

State University, Columbus, OH; Yuanhui Zhang, PhD, PE, Member,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL

2. Ventilation Effectiveness Criteria and Measurement Methods

Applicable to Animal Buildings: A Review (RP-1301) (DA-07-039)

Sheryll Jerez, Student Member, Yuanhui Zhang, PhD, PE, Member and

Xinlei Wang, PhD, Member, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Urbana, IL

TRANSACTIONS 15 (Intermediate)

Software Tools and Methodologies for Enhanced Building Operation

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.5 Smart Building Systems; TC 1.4 Control Theory and

Application, TC 7.9 Building Commissioning

Chair: John M. House, PhD, Member, Natural Resources Canada,

Varennes, PQ, Canada

This symposium presents two papers describing software tools and

methodologies for identifying and correcting, operational problems with

mechanical equipment that can lead to energy waste, excessive equipment

wear and occupant discomfort. The approaches use data collected during

open-loop tests that could be performed as part of the commissioning

process. One paper presents a semi-automated software tool for

identifying operational problems in VAV air handling units through the

assessment of functional test data. The second paper presents a

generalized methodology for identifying and canceling static

nonlinearities in a controlled process that can lead to unstable

feedback control.

1. A Semi-automated Commissioning Tool for VAV Air Handling Units:

Functional Test Analyzer (DA-07-040)

Philip Haves, PhD, Fellow, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Berkeley, CA; Moosung Kim and Massieh Najafi, University of California,

Berkeley, CA; Peng Xu, PhD, PE, Member, Lawrence Berkeley National

Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

2. Characterization and Cancellation of Static Nonlinearity in HVAC

Systems (DA-07-041)

Ashish Singhal, PhD, Member and Timothy Salsbury, PhD, Member,

Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI

SEMINAR 44 (Basic)

Distinguished Lecturer: The Ethics and the Economics of Energy

Conservation

Track: Business Management

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: Society Program Committee

Speaker: Bill Coad, Fellow, Presidential Life Member, Coad

Engineering Enterprises, St. Louis, MO

This session explores the history and the current status of fossil

fuels which provide an overwhelming portion of the energy that is used

to support the world economy and the related quality of life. A parallel

focus on the societal ethics regarding the responsibility of mankind to

preserve the earth's resources, with particular emphasis on the

relevance of engineering ethics is made. The relationship between these

two observations is then analyzed, concluding in the development of the

fundamental steps in any societal energy policy.

SEMINAR 45 (Intermediate)

Building Commissioning (GSHP)

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.8 Geothermal Energy Utilization

Chair: Jitendra B. Singh, Member, J & P Engineers, Linwood, NJ

Commissioning is the process of ensuring that systems are designed,

installed, functionally tested, and capable of being operated and

maintained to perform in conformity with the design intent. As

professionals, we are often contacted by building owners and maintenance

personnel to be accountable for or resolve issues surrounding the

staggering maintenance and operating cost problems possible after

ground-source heat pump system installation. In most cases, higher costs

can be attributed to system installations which have not been adequately

commissioned. This seminar provides case studies and insight into the

commissioning process for ground-source heat pump installations.

1. Review of System Design, Construction and Start-Up Issues

Arthur W. Hunt, Member, J & P Engineers, Linwood, NJ

2. GSHP Professional for System Commissioning

Lisa Meline, Member, Meline Engineering, Sacramento, CA

3. Success? Designers vs. Contractor vs. Owner

Stephen Hamstra, Member, GMB Architects-Engineers, Holland, MI

4. Trials and Rewards with Three New Geo Exchange Schools for the

Jordan School District

Duane Devey, Jordan School District, Sandy, UT and Cary Smith,

Member Sound Geothermal Corp., Sandy, UT

FORUM 4 (Basic)

Advances in Cooling of High Density Electronic Equipment

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and

Electronic Equipment

Moderator: Donald L. Beaty, PE, DLB Associates Consulting

Engineers, P.C., Ocean, NJ

This forum highlights selected information from an upcoming ASHRAE

book related to the cooling of high-density electronic equipment in

datacom facilities, as well as recent industry surveys about this topic.

After the lecture, the forum is open to the audience to discuss new and

outstanding issues relating to high-density cooling and to identify

potential future research areas for ASHRAE Technical Committee TC9.9,

Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and Electronic Equipment.

FORUM 5 (Basic)

Low-Exergy Buildings: How Low You Can Go?

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TG1. Exergy Analysis for Sustainable Buildings; TC 1.1

Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics

Moderator: Birol Kilkis, PhD, Fellow, Watts Radiant, Vienna, VA

IEA Annex 37 and IEA Annex 49 emphasize the fact that the next

generation of green buildings must use low exergy waste and alternative

energy sources. By replacing fossil fuels with low-exergy resources and

increasing the exergy efficiency in building systems, there are new

carbon dioxide emission reduction opportunities, which may not be

indicated by energy analysis alone. This forum debates how exergy

analysis may help designers, engineers, and contractors to design, build

and operate low-exergy buildings.

FORUM 6 (Basic)

Practical Approach to Green Water Systems: Avoiding Unanticipated

Consequences

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 3.6 Water Treatment

Moderator: Tim Keane, Associate, Legionella Risk Management, Inc.,

Chalfont, PA

Engineering projects are impacted by many factors. On occasion,

these projects can result in a product that may cost more to operate or

may not provide the savings intended. Green water systems, like other

engineering projects, can have unforeseen consequences related to

operating costs or health and safety that offset the intended results.

This forum discusses those unintended results from some green water

designs.

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

TRANSACTIONS 16 (Advanced)

Advances in Measurement and Modeling of Indoor Environmental

Quality of Animal Buildings: Part 2

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.2 Plant and Animal Environment

Chair: Aijun Wang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Urbana, IL

Concentrated, large-scale animal feeding operations create

significant challenges in controlling air emissions and maintaining

indoor environmental quality. Many ASHRAE members are involved in the

design and troubleshooting of environmental quality systems for animal

facilities, and research developments in these areas have been on-going

efforts. This session includes papers related to advances in

measurement, modeling and mitigation technologies for indoor

environmental quality of animal facilities.

1. Numerical Study of Air Movement in a Slot-Ventilated Enclosure

(DA-07-042)

Xinlei Wang, Member, Jianbo Jiang and Yuanhui Zhang, Member,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL

2. Implementation of Controller Area Networks for Animal

Environment Monitoring (DA-07-043)

Matthew J. Darr and Lingying Zhao, PhD, Ohio State University,

Columbus, OH; M. Reza Ehsani, PhD, University of Florida, Lake Alfred,

FL

3. Analysis of Airflow in a Full-Scale Room with Non-Isothermal Jet

Ventilation Using PTV Techniques (DA-07-044)

Lingying Zhao, PhD, Member, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH;

Yuanhui Zhang, PhD, PE, Member and Xinlei Wang, PhD, Member, University

of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL; Gerald L. Riskowski,

Member, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX

SEMINAR 46 (Intermediate)

Case Studies of HEPA Filter Design and Installation Challenges

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.2 Industrial Air Conditioning; TC 5.8 Industrial

Ventilation Systems

Chair: Douglass S. Abramson, Member, US Department of Energy,

Silver Spring, MD

The use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in

industrial facilities as a form of protection from hazardous substances

requires precise design and installation to ensure effective

performance. This seminar provides three case studies that demonstrate

the challenges that engineers face when working with HEPA filters.

1. Are You Thinking I Have HEPA Filters Therefore I Am Safe!: Maybe

You Are Not as Safe as You Think You Are!

Wayne M. Lawton, PE, Member, Lentz Engineering Associates, Inc.,

Sheboygan Falls, WI

2. HEPA Filter System Design: Application of Radiological System

Design to Homeland Security Systems

Jan K. Fretthold, Member, Air Techniques International Test

Laboratory, Baltimore, MD

3. Case Studies in HEPA Filter Challenges for Bio-Containment

Michael C. Connor, PE, Member, GRG/Earl Walls Associates,

Alpharetta, GA

SEMINAR 47 (Intermediate)

Effects of Sprinklers on Smoke Control

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 5.6 Control of Fire and Smoke; TC 5.9 Enclosed

Vehicular Facilities

Chair: Ray J. Sinclair, PhD, Member, Rowan Williams Davies &

Irwin Inc., Guelph, ON, Canada

In the event of a fire in a large space such as an atrium,

sprinklers and emergency ventilation systems may operate at the same

time. Sprinklers cool hot smoke, and the water droplets disperse it,

while emergency ventilation is intended to control smoke movement. The

interaction of these two systems is not widely known, and most designs

of smoke management systems do not account directly for these complex

effects. The seminar summarizes the basics of sprinklers, code issues,

recent research and the status of CFD computer modeling. Outcomes may

include practical issues and directions for possible future research.

1. Sprinkler Requirements in Buildings with Smoke Management

Systems

Kevin J. Kelly, PE, National Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc.,

Patterson, NY

2. Modeling Fire, Smoke and Sprinklers

Kevin McGrattan, PhD, National Institute of Standards and

Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

3. Review of ASHRAE-NRC Research on Sprinklers and Smoke Management

Gary D. Lougheed, PhD, Member, National Research Council, Ottawa,

ON, Canada

SEMINAR 48 (Intermediate)

Hospital Waiting Room Ventilation and Minimizing Risk of Airborne

Infection

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.6 Health Care Facilities; TC 9.10 Laboratory Systems

Chair: Duncan Phillips, PhD, PE, PEng, Associate, Rowan Williams

Davies & Irwin (RWDI) Inc., Guelph, ON, Canada

The primary point of entry into a hospital for most patients

involves a period in a waiting room, and current design assumes that

people in the waiting rooms are free of contagious diseases. Those who

are suspected of carrying an airborne transmitted disease are frequently

moved to a temporary isolation room, but this is not always possible. In

these cases, other design techniques for hospital spaces are required to

lower the risk of transmission. This seminar presents scenarios through

which ventilation systems, protocols and other strategies can be

employed to reduce risks for patients and health care workers.

1. The Use of HEPA Filtration and UVGI to Reduce Infection Risk in

a Large Hospital ER

Firouz Keikavousi, PE, Member, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL

2. Practical Ventilation Strategies to Reduce Infection Risk in

Waiting Rooms

Sidney A. Parsons, PE, PEng, Member, Council for Industrial and

Scientific Research, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

3. Evaluation of Airborne Transmission Risk of Different

Ventilation Strategies in a Hospital Waiting Room Using CFD

Duncan A. Phillips, PhD, PE, Associate Member, Rowan Williams

Davies & Irwin (Inc.), Guelph, ON, Canada

SEMINAR 49 (Intermediate)

Issues Update: Refrigerant Forecast for Servicing Unitary AC for

the Next Decade and Beyond

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.5 Global Climate Change; Chapter Technology Transfer

Committee

Chair: James G. Crawford, Fellow, Trane/American Standard, Tyler,

TX

The Clean Air Act implementation of the U.S. obligations under the

Montreal Protocol reduces allowable HCFC-22 production in 2010 and 2015

and ends it in 2020. This raises the question of whether there will be

sufficient refrigerant for servicing existing equipment in the next 10

to 15 years. This seminar reviews the background of the curtailments,

presents a summary of a study done for EPA in 2005 to forecast

availability of HCFC-22 and gives an overview of the prospects for HFCs

as replacements for HCFC-22.

1. Pressures on HCFC-22 Availability in the Coming Years

Steven H. Bernhardt, PhD, Member, Honeywell International,

Morristown, NJ

2. Preparing for the 2010 Phasedown of HCFC-22

Cindy Newberg, EPA, Washington, DC

3. HCFC-22 Alternatives and Regulatory Pressures

Thomas E. Werkema, Member, Arkema, Philadelphia, PA

SEMINAR 50 (Advanced)

Recent Developments in Microchannel Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Track: Refrigeration

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: TC 1.3 Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Chair: Amir Jokar, PhD, Member, Washington State University

Vancouver, Vancouver, WA

Heat transfer and fluid flow at micro scales have the potential to

yield substantial improvements in heat fluxes and the consequent

reductions in component sizes. This seminar highlights exciting

developments in this field that are of interest to the air-conditioning

and refrigerating industry. Heat transfer phenomena, fluid flow

characteristics, and related topics are addressed.

1. Local Refrigerant Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients at

Hydraulic Diameters ~ 100 microns

Srinivas Garimella, PhD, Member, Georgia Institute of Technology,

Atlanta, GA

2. Measurements of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients in a

Mini-Channel Evaporator for Electronics Cooling

Eckhard Groll, PhD, Member, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

3. The Use of Microtopology to Manage Condensate and Frost-melt

Retention in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications

Anthony Jacobi, PhD, Member, University of Illinois at Urbana

Champaign, Urbana, IL

4. Forced-Fed Compound Boiling/Evaporation in Micro Channels:

Application to Regional Cooling of High Flux Surfaces

Michael Ohadi, PhD, Fellow, University of Maryland, College Park,

MD

SEMINAR 51 (Intermediate)

Sustainable Energy Efficiency: District Energy Systems in Texas

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.2 District Energy

Chair: Alan W. Green, PE, Member, CB & I, Plainfield, IL

District energy systems are becoming increasingly popular in Texas,

with new systems being built and existing systems being expanded. This

session presents three case studies of Texas-based systems, highlighting

technical innovations and the economic and environmental benefits of

district energy.

1. Lessons Learned from (3) District Energy Systems

Cliff Braddock, Austin Energy, Austin, TX

2. Low Temp District Cooling with Thermal Storage

Jerry Dennis, DFW International Airport, DFW Airport, TX

3. Expansion of District Energy at the Texas Medical Center

Steve Swinson, Thermal Energy Corp., Houston, TX

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

11:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m.

POSTER SESSION

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

SPC Liaisons: Ken Cooper, PhD, PE, Member, Poolpak Int., Seven

Valleys, PA; Keith Newcomer, Member, Piedmont Natural Gas, Cary, NC; and

Riyaz Paper, PE, Member, Hudson Technologies, The Woodlands, TX

A Comparative Analysis of CFD DP Versus Measured DP for Maximum

Stretched, 4%, 15% and 30% Compressed 6 in. Diameter Flexible Ducts

(RP-1333) (DA-07-049)

Sponsor: TC 5.2 Duct Design

Ahmet Ugursal, and Charles Culp, PhD, PE, Fellow, Texas A & M

University, College Station, TX

For this poster session, there are two objectives. The first is to

set-up a 3-D modeling and mesh generation method of flexible duct, which

represents the duct geometry and provides visual information on the flow

patterns. Second is to calibrate the CFD model by comparing simulation

data with the laboratory data with the same duct configuration.

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was used to study the

pressure drop behavior of six-inch diameter flexible duct with a

single-helix core. The study results suggested that the CFD model can

simulate static pressure drop within roughly 5% to 10% of the measured

values for flexible ducts in the board-supported configuration.

A Fast Algorithm for the Simulation of GCHP Systems (DA-07-050)

Louis Lamarche, PhD, PE and Benoit Beauchamp, Student Member, Ecole

de Technologi Superieure, Montreal, PQ, Canada

Annual hourly energy simulations are an important part of the

design and analysis of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. To

evaluate the fluid temperature in the bore-hole of a geothermal heat

pump system, most current models express the heat transfer rate as a sum

of step changes. The main difference between the different models lies

in the way the step response is computed. Since these methods are based

on a convolution scheme, long-time simulations are time consuming

because impulse responses are recomputed at each time step. In this

paper, a new algorithm is presented to evaluate the overall response,

which is much faster than the classical convolution scheme.

An Experimental Investigation of Response Times for Duct-Mounted

Relative Humidity Transmitters (DA-07-051)

Shailesh N. Joshi, Hewlett-Packard Co., Houston, TX; Ron M. Nelson,

PhD, PE, Member and Michael B. Pate, PhD, Member, Iowa State University,

Ames, IA; John M. House, PhD, Member, Natural Resources Canada,

Varennes, QC, Canada; Curtis J. Klaassen, Member, Ankeny, IA

This paper reports the response times of six duct-mounted relative

humidity transmitters used in building HVAC. Out of the six, three were

capacitive types and three were resistive types. The test hardware used

to determine the response times of relative humidity transmitters is

described along with a detailed description of the test conditions and

the experimental test procedure. The experimental test results revealed

significant variation in the average response times, with the fastest at

7 seconds and slowest being 96 seconds. Test results indicate that

capacitive-type transmitter had faster response times compared to

resistive-type transmitters.

(DA-07-052) (RP-1092) Withdrawn

Applying the Effectiveness NTU Method to the Elemental Heat

Exchanger Models (DA-07-056)

Ipseng Iu, Student Member, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,

OK; N.A. Weber, Associate Member, York International Unitary Products

Group, Norman, OK; Pradeep Bansal, PhD, University of Auckland,

Auckland, New Zealand; D.E. Fisher, Oklahoma State University,

Stillwater, OK

Elemental heat exchanger models are increasingly used in heat pump

design calculations because of their ability to accurately model complex

heat exchanger circuits and non-uniform coil face velocities. This paper

illustrates both the capacity error and the numerical error that can

result from improper handling of the transition element in an elemental

heat exchanger model. An algorithm that correctly handles the transition

element is proposed. Examples are presented to illustrate improvements

in the capacity calculation and the simulation performance due to the

proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is specifically applied to

the NTU heat exchanger calculation method, but can also be applied to

the LMTD method without loss of generality.

Comparative Analysis of Four Solar Models for Tropical Sites

(RP-1309) (DA-07-057)

Sponsor: TC 4.2 Climatic Information Moncef Krarti, PhD, PE, Member

and Donghyun Seo, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

This paper summarizes the results of a comparative analysis for

four models used to predict hourly solar radiation for six tropical

sites. The four models include the Kasten; Muneer; Zhang and Huang; and

neural-network-based models. The global, diffuse, and direct solar

radiation predictions, which require cloud cover and non-solar weather

data, are compared against measured solar data obtained for

meteorological stations in the six tropical sites. The results of the

validation analysis indicate that Zhang and Huang model is suitable for

predicting hourly solar radiation in tropical climates.

Coupling Multiple Heat Production and Consumption Units by

Employing the New Three-Pipe System (DA-07-059)

Aristidis Afentoulidis, PhD and Merima Slateva, Technical

University of Sofia, Bulgaria, Greece

The potential impact of the present article to HVAC technology is

significant and is expected to have substantial contributions. This

poster session presents a solution to the problems associated with

constant hydraulic coupling of multiple heat or cooling production units

with multiple heat consumption or absorption units. This solution is

based on the application of the new three-pipe system (patent pending),

which operates as a variable primary and secondary network with

negligible interactive hydraulic phenomena. It ensures hydraulic

separation, and enables adjusting the hydraulic components on each

branch, without transferring or producing unintentional hydraulic

changes to other network branches.

Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils (DA-0-053)

Gang Wang and Mingsheng Liu, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE;

David E. Claridge, PhD, PE, Member, Texas A & M University, College

Station, TX

Chilled water cooling coils are important components in air

handling systems. Generally, the cooling coil removes both moisture and

sensible heat from entering air. Since the sensible and latent heat

transfer modes are coupled and the saturation humidity ratio vs.

temperature curve on the psychrometric chart is non-linear, it is very

difficult to solve cooling coil heat transfer differential equations

across the entire coil. This paper presents a decoupled cooling coil

model that uses a constant sensible heat ratio (SHR) and the saturation

humidity ratio vs. temperature curve, which can be treated as linear in

a small area corresponding to a finite element of the coil.

(DA-07-054) (RP-1092) Withdrawn

Development and Performance of a Retrofittable, High-Efficiency,

Grease Filter System for Kitchen Hoods (DA-07-060)

Francis M. Farrell, Thomas M. Fitch, Associate Member and Michael

J. Morgan, Captrate, Prescott, WI

The first line of defense against greasy kitchen emissions is a

single-stage filter located in the exhaust hood. Recent

industry-sponsored research that has produced a new ASTM Standard that

shows little of the entrained grease is captured by these devices

despite the fact they get dirty with usage. This paper describes the

performance of a new two-stage filter that captures a substantially

greater percentage of emitted grease. The new filter includes a baffle

stage and a secondary, packed bed filter. The packed bed's design

and operating principle will be described. Lastly, its application,

including when retrofitted into existing hoods in commercial kitchens,

is described.

Development of a Ground Source Heat Pump System with Ground Heat

Exchanger Utilizing the Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile Foundations of

Buildings (DA-07-061)

K. Sekine, Taisei Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; R. Ooka,

University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo, Japan; M. Yokoi, Taisei Corp.,

Shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan; Y. Shiba, Zeneral Heatpump Industry Co., Ltd.,

Oodaka, Nagoya, Japan; S. Hwang, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo,

Japan

Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems can achieve a higher

coefficient of performance than conventional air-source heat pump (ASHP)

systems. However, GSHP systems are not widespread in Japan because of

their expensive boring costs. The authors have developed a GSHP system

that employs the cast-in-place concrete pile foundations of a building

as heat exchangers to reduce the initial boring cost. In this system,

some U-tubes are arranged around the surface of a cast-in-place concrete

pile foundation. The heat exchange capability of this system,

subterranean temperature changes and heat pump performance were

investigated in a full-scale experiment, the results of which show that

this system should be commercially viable.

Development of a New Energy Management Programming Tool

"TSC" (DA-07-062)

Tatsuo Inooka, DrEng, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan;

Ryuji Yanagihara and Kazuhiro Miyamoto, Tokyo Electric Power Co.,

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Taichi Murata, Systech Environmental Research

Laboratory, Suginami, Tokyo, Japan; Hiroshi Ninomiya, Nikken Sekkei

Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan

This poster session describes the energy management programming

tool TSC, which was developed in 1991. TSC includes three essential

elements: a logic construction tool, a communication tool, and a

standard for data naming. The communication tool performs

object-oriented communication using internet standard protocol HTTP.

Along with the logic construction tool TSC/prog, it is ready-made

software that is written in Java and C language, making it possible to

use them both on a computer. TSC/prog is divided into the custom file

that is the simple text file which is to describe control logics, and

the logic engine that decrypts and executes the custom files. The data

naming standard unifies the names of all data.

Impact of Solar Models on Building Energy Analysis for Tropical

Sites (RP-1309) (DA-07-058)

Sponsor: TC 4.2 Climatic Information Donghyun Seo and Moncef

Krarti, PhD, PE, Member, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

The paper explores the impact of solar model used to estimate

hourly global, diffuse, and direct solar radiation on annual building

energy use. The building energy analysis used a detailed whole-building

simulation tool that used hourly Typical Meteorological Year (TMY)

weather files, which were developed from predictions of solar radiation

from four models: the Kasten model, Muneer, Zhang and Huang model, and

neural network based model. Measured data was also used in the analysis

to determine the impact of solar model on the annual energy use of the

prototypical office buildings. The results of the analysis indicated

that Zhang and Huang model, when used with site-fitted coefficients,

performed best.

Impact of the Position of the Radiators on Energy Consumption and

Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System

(DA-07-055)

Xiangyang Gong, Student Member and David E. Claridge, PhD, PE,

Member, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX

This paper studies the heating load and thermal comfort

distribution in a typical office with a mixed radiant and convective

heating system for two different locations of radiant heat sources for a

typical heating condition. It is found that when radiators are near the

window and controlled to maintain the same operative temperature as with

convective heating, they increase heating consumption slightly. In an

occupied space, radiant heating slightly reduces heating load depending

on radiator location and the outside air supply rate. Analysis shows

that locating the radiator near the window can improve the comfort level

in a space and the heating load can be slightly reduced compared with

100% convective heating.

New Procedure for Estimating Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio of

Chiller (DA-07-063)

Yoshiyuki Shimoda, Dr.Eng., Osaka University, Osaka, Japan;

Nattapon Choonchuachan, Fuji Seiki Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; Minoru

Mizuno, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

This paper proposes a new index of the seasonal energy efficiency

for chillers. The chiller seasonal efficiency (CSE) index can be used by

building designers for specifying the required chiller performance to

manufacturers. This index has is adaptable to multiple-chiller systems

by setting six rating points to consider the difference in the COP. In

this paper, the rating condition for CSE index is determined from the

cooling load profile of office buildings in Japan. Using the CSE index,

the advantage of variable speed compressor chiller is presented, and the

effect of the difference in chiller sequence control is discussed.

Predicting Individual Differences in Human Thermal Strain Using

Computational Models (DA-07-064)

Anthony E. Iyoho, Tai S. Jang, John A. Gall and Satish Nair,

Member, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO

Humans can be subjected to uncompensable heat stress while wearing

protective clothing, and safety is often not possible primarily due to

the reliability of monitoring body temperatures. Predicting heat strain

for the individual is challenging due to variations in individual

characteristics, so this paper proposes a systematic approach to

determine correction factors based on individual characteristics to

adjust the tolerance time predictions of an 'average'

computational model of heat strain. A hybrid model is proposed that

incorporates an average prediction and a framework for correction

factors based on individual differences.

Quantifying Model Uncertainties or the Passive Human Thermal System

(DA-07-065)

Anthony Iyoho, Tai Jang, Samuel B. Thornton, PhD, PE and Satish S.

Nair, PhD, PE, Member, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO

This paper focuses on the effect of selected system parametric

uncertainties on two possible thermal comfort predictors: average skin

temperature and total body heat storage. The effect of the system

parameters is quantified using a sensitivity analysis approach involving

the equations of the '41-node man' human thermal model. The

quantification allows the parameters to be ranked based on their effect

on the two thermal comfort predictors. A simulation-based sensitivity

analysis is also performed to confirm the findings. The reported study

represents one step in the direction of understanding the difficult

issue of accuracy of human thermal models.

Self-Assessed Productivity and the Office Environment: Monthly

Surveys in Five European Countries (DA-07-066)

Michael A. Humphreys and J. Fergus Nicol, Oxford Brookes

University, Oxford, UK

This paper explores the relation of self-assessed productivity to

the objective environment and to user satisfaction with air-quality,

acoustic, visual and thermal conditions. The data are from the SCATs

Project (Smart Controls and Thermal Comfort) and were obtained during

monthly surveys in 26 office buildings in five European countries. The

self-assessed productivity was maximal when the comfort was greatest,

over a wide range environments. This result implies that it is

misleading to relate productivity directly to environmental variables

without first considering the overall comfort of the worker. The effects

of various methods of environmental control on the perceived

productivity are also discussed in the paper.

Simulated Performance Analysis of a Multi-Zone VAV System Under

Different Ventilation Control Strategies (DA-07-067)

Nabil Nassif, PhD and Mohammed Zaheeruddin, PhD, Concordia

University, Montreal, PQ, Canada

Dynamic and static performance of a VAV system under different

ventilation control strategies is investigated. The effect of many

factors, such as occupancy and thermal load distributions between zones,

locations and number of zones served, outdoor air CO2 concentration and

PI control on the performance of ventilation control strategy are

discussed. A new ventilation control strategy based on supply air CO2

concentration is proposed for multi-zone VAV systems. The simulation

results made on a typical multi-zone VAV system show that the studied

factors play important role in selecting ventilation control strategies

for better performance.

The Effects of Thermostat Setting on Seasonal Energy Consumption at

the CCHT Twin House Facility (DA-07-068)

M.M. Manning, M.C. Swinton, F. Szadkowski and J. Gudsorf, National

Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada; K. Ruest, Canada Mortgage and

Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON, Canada

During the winter heating season of 2002-2003 and the summer

cooling season of 2003, the Canadian Centre for Housing Technology

(CCHT) ran a series of trials to determine actual energy savings from

thermostat setting in one of its R-2000 test houses. The unique nature

of the CCHT Twin House Facility allowed not only the examination of

energy savings, but also whole house performance. Important factors that

affect occupant comfort are explored, including: air temperature

recovery time from set-back and set-up, house surface temperatures

during winter set-back, solar effects and summer house humidity.

Use of Factorial Sensitivity Analysis in Multizone Airflow Model

Tuning (DA-07-069)

Joseph Firrantello and William Bahnfleth, PhD, PE, The Pennsylvania

State University, University Park, PA; Amy Musser, PhD, PE, Vandemusser

Design, LLC, Asheville, NC; James D. Freihaut, PhD and Jae-Weon Jeong,

PhD, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Multizone models provide a relatively simple, rapid means for

simulating airflow and contaminant dispersion in complex buildings.

However, an untuned model may not agree well with the actual performance

of the building it represents. An efficient method for tuning a model,

which combines a heuristic approach with factorial sensitivity analysis,

is evaluated for the case of a hypothetical single-story building served

by three independent air distribution systems. The method results in

improvement from 60% incorrect to 10% incorrect after six correction

steps. Improvement is significantly more rapid using the structured

approach than when corrections are made using randomly selected

measurements.

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

11:00 a.m.-12:30 p.m.

SEMINAR 9

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

EPAct Building Tax Deductions

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C144, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 7.6 Systems Energy Utilization; TC 2.8 Building

Environmental Impacts and Sustainability

Chair: Kimberly Barker, Associate, Siemens Building Technologies,

Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL

The commercial building provision Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct

2005) offers business taxpayers a deduction of $1.80 per square foot for

commercial buildings that achieve a 50% reduction in annual energy cost

to the user, compared to a base building defined by the industry

standard ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001. This seminar provides information on

Section 17D of the 2005 Energy Policy Act, including interpreting and

instructions on how to take advantage of the federal tax deduction. The

session also provides instruction on how to complete energy modeling,

building inspection requirements and documentation for required federal

tax deductions.

1. Interpreting EPAct 2005 Sections on Commericial Buildings and

What It Means to ASHRAE Members

Drury Crawley, Member, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC

2. Energy Modeling and Inspection Requirements for Federal Tax

Deduction

Michael Deru, PhD, Member, National Renewable Energy Laboratory,

Golden, CO

3. Getting Tax Credits for Improving the Energy Efficiency in Your

Home

Drury Crawley, Member, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC

SEMINAR 10

Dallas Convention Center (Basic)

Fundamentals of Ultraviolet Light for IEQ and HVAC Applications

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C150, Ground Level

Sponsor: TG2.UVAS Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment

Chair: William P. Bahnfleth, PhD, PE, Fellow, Pennsylvania State

University, University Park, PA

With adequate exposure time, ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation can

effectively inactivate a variety of microorganisms, classified as

bacteria, viruses and mold spores. Thus, UVC lamps have been used in

upper-air applications for decades and are frequently installed inside

HVAC systems to help maintain clean coils, drain pans and duct surfaces.

UVC lamps are also increasingly used in conjunction with mechanical

ventilation and air filtration to help prevent airborne disease

transmission. Although UVC lamps are becoming more common in IEQ and

HVAC applications, few practicing HVAC professionals understand the

fundamentals of UVC. This seminar describes these fundamentals.

1. UVC 101

John M. Putnam, Member, Environmental Dynamics Inc., Sterling, VA

2. UVC Upper-Air Systems

Chuck Dunn, Member, Lumalier, Memphis, TN

3. UVC Applications in Built-Up HVAC Systems

Forrest B. Fencl, Member, UV Resources, Valencia, CA

4. UVC Applications in Unitary HVAC Systems

John J. Andros, Member, American Ultraviolet Corp., Shelton, CT

SEMINAR 11

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Hydronic Systems Control Issues

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C141, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 6.1 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems

Chair: Thomas E. Cappelin, PE, Member, Hanson Professional

Services, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL

Nothing seems to get a good debate going more than proper hydronic

systems design and application. The importance of a hydronic system,

whether or not to balance it, how to properly select a control valve,

and the latest technology all have scientific logic and reasoning in

their application, but often there is only anecdotal advice available on

when and how to apply different methods or devices. This seminar

incorporates some of the historic engineering that led to the rule of

thumb guidance and explains the anecdotes while giving the tips and

techniques necessary to make proper design decisions.

1. Impact of Flow Control Accuracy on Heat Exchanger Performance at

Design Conditions

Nicholas Zupp, Member, Hays Fluid Controls, Dallas, NC

2. A Users Guide for the System Curve

Mark C. Hegberg, Member, ITT Bell & Gossett, Morton Grove, IL

3. Control Valves: Selection, Sizing, Interaction with System

Components

Mark C. Hegberg, Member, ITT Bell & Gossett, Morton Grove, IL

SEMINAR 12

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Mechanical Insulations: Practical Considerations

Track: Fundamentals

Dallas Convention Center, C145, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 1.8 Mechanical Systems Insulation

Chair: Andre O. Desjarlais, Member, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,

Oak Ridge, TN

This seminar provides practical, cost-justified guidance for

improved specifications. The speaker addresses three practical

considerations for specifiers of mechanical insulation systems: fire

code compliance, acoustical treatment of piping, and consideration of

true economic thickness in view of today's rising energy costs.

These topics are often misunderstood and mishandled in mechanical

insulation system specifications.

1. Revisiting the Economics of Mechanical Insulation in Office

Buildings

Glenn A. Brower, Member, Knauf Insulation Gmbh, Shelbyville, IN

2. International Mechanical Code: Changes in Fire Testing

Requirements for Mechanical Insulation

Charles J. Petty, Associate, Compac Corp., Hackettstown, NJ

3. Economical Ways to Control Noise Radiating from Piping Systems

W. Scott Miller, Member, Knauf Insulation, Newark, OH

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

1:00 p.m.-2:00 p.m.

SEMINAR 13

Dallas Convention Center (Basic)

Distinguished Lecturer: The Future of an Energized HVAC & R

Industry

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C150, Ground Level

Sponsor: Society Program Committee

Speaker: Richard B. Hayter, PhD, PE, Presidential Member, Kansas

State University, Manhattan, KS

Our industry has had a profound effect on humanity throughout the

globe. Occupants in our buildings are more comfortable, healthy and

productive. Food can be transported throughout the world and industrial

processes have been made possible. Advances in technology, market

changes, political decisions, and in particular concerns for energy and

our environment have brought on these improvements. We must be prepared

to direct these changes for the betterment of our clients, our industry

and a global society. This presentation will discuss new advances in

technology, market trends and global standards affecting the use of our

systems and equipment.

SEMINAR 14

Dallas Convention Center (Basic)

How to Form a Design Team for Sustainable Results

Track: Applications

Dallas Convention Center, C141, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 7.1 Integrated Building Design

Chair: M. Dennis Knight, PE, Member, Liollio Architecture,

Charleston, SC

This session focuses on design selection for an integrated building

design (IBD) process. Design team selection is one of the most critical

first steps a prime design professional may take toward ensuring project

success. The end result of IBD is optimized, energy-efficient,

high-performing, environmentally friendly, safe and sustainable

facilities and structures that create pleasing, healthy and more

productive indoor environments.

1. Architect's Role In Selecting a Design Team and

Participating in a Sustainable Building Design

C. Dinos Liollio, Liollio Architecture, Charleston, SC

2. Consultants Roles and Responsibilities as Part of a Design Team

on a Sustainable Design Project

Chris Crane, PE, Member, DWG, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Mt.

Pleasant, SC

SEMINAR 15

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Installation Issues with Unitary Equipment: What's the Impact

and What Can We Do About It?

Track: Operational Topics

Dallas Convention Center, C145, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 8.11 Unitary and Room Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

Chair: Gregory J. Rosenquist, Member, Lawrence Berkeley National

Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

Unitary air conditioners often do not perform as expected in

residential and commercial applications due to installation issues.

Problems such as low air flow, low refrigerant charge, poor ductwork

design, or control issues can result in less than optimal efficiency or

low capacity. This seminar includes presentations on measured impacts of

low airflow and low charge on performance, and field experiences with

unitary rooftop equipment. A national specification that is being

developed to promote quality installations is also discussed.

1. Impact of Air Flow and Refrigerant Charge on System Performance

Sivakumar Gopalnarayanan, PhD, Member, United Technologies Research

Center, East Hartford, CT

2. Everything You Wanted to Know About Roof Top Installations But

Were Afraid to Ask

Leroy Berry, Carrier RLCS, Tyler, TX

3. A National Specification to Promote Quality Installation of HVAC

Systems

Glenn Hourahan, PE, Member, Air Conditioning Contractors of

America, Arlington, VA

SEMINAR 16

Dallas Convention Center (Intermediate)

Instantaneous Water Heaters: Energy Solutions or Problem Creators?

Track: Systems and Equipment

Dallas Convention Center, C144, Ground Level

Sponsor: TC 6.6 Service Water Heating

Chair: Wayne Webster, PE, PEng, Member, Princess Towers Inc,

Ottawa, ON, Canada

Instantaneous (i.e. tankless or demand) water heaters have the

potential of reducing domestic water heating energy consumption. They

can have difficulty controlling outlet temperature when subjected to

sudden changes in flow rate or inlet temperature and thus have not

achieved acceptance in the North American market. The presentations will

describe dynamic modeling, predictive adaptive control, and a method of

test for tankless water heater outlet temperature control. A working

test apparatus has been constructed, and a method of test has been used

on three manufacturers' water heaters. Preliminary results from

this testing are discussed.

1. Improving Temperature Control in Electric Tankless Water Heaters

G. K. Yuill, PhD, PE, Fellow, University of Nebraska-Lincoln,

Omaha, NE

2. A Method of Test for Tankless Water Heater Temperature Control

Performance

David P. Yuill, Member, Building Solutions, Inc., Omaha, NE

Wednesday

January 31, 2007

7:45 a.m.-9:15 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 17 (Intermediate)

Ventilation in Hot and Humid Climates

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration; SSPC62.2

Chair: Dianne Griffiths, PE, PEng, Associate Member, Steven Winter

Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT

Recent research on meeting ventilation needs in U.S. homes in hot

and humid climates and in commercial buildings in the tropics of

Singapore is presented. Topics include ventilation load characteristics,

performance of current HVAC systems, advanced HVAC systems with enhanced

latent capability, and ASHRAE 62.2 requirements and approaches.

1. A Review of Ventilation and Air-conditioning Technologies for

Energy Efficient Healthy Buildings in the Tropics (DA-07-045)

Sitaraman Chandra Sekhar, PhD, Member, National University of

Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

2. Monitored Indoor Moisture and Temperature Conditions in Humid

Climate US Residences (DA-07-046)

Armin Rudd, Member, Building Science Consortium, Westford, MA; Hugh

I. Henderson, Jr., PE, Member, CDH Energy Corp., Cazenovia, NY

SEMINAR 52 (Intermediate)

ASHRAE and ASES Views on Solar Utilization in Zero-Energy Footprint

Buildings

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 6.7 Solar Energy Utilization; ASES (American Solar

Energy Society)

Chair: Svein O. Morner, PhD, PE, Member, Sustainable Engineering

Group LLC, Madison, WI

This seminar introduces different technologies that use solar

energy to reduce or eliminate energy consumption of buildings. The

economics of alternative energy options is discussed. ASES (American

Solar Energy Society) is a co-sponsor of this seminar, and an overview

of the ASES approach to zero-energy buildings is presented.

1. Solar Cooling: An Overview of European Applications and Design

Guidelines

Constantinos A. Balaras, PhD, National Observatory of Athens,

Athens, Greece

2. Solar Economics: Comparing Costs of Alternative Energy Options

Henry M. Healey, PE, Member, Healey & Associates, Merritt

Island, FL

3. Solar-Based Mechanical Systems for Zero-Energy Buildings

Gary Vliet, PhD, Austin, TX

SEMINAR 53 (Intermediate)

Emerging Wireless Technologies, Part 1: Basics

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.5 Smart Building Systems; TC 1.4 Control Theory and

Application)

Chair: Carol Lomonaco, Member, Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee,

WI

This seminar highlights wireless technology, an emerging technology

for the commercial HVAC industry. The presentations look at where BACnet

will take the wireless technology for the commercial HVAC industry.

Experiences with different types of wireless technologies, including

sensors data communication, is reviewed. The seminar also describes what

a Wi-Fi mesh network is and how to use it for building controls.

1. SSPC 135 Support of ZigBee Wireless Communications

Jerry Martocci, Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI

2. Wireless Sensors Data Communication in Buildings: An Odyssey

Anoop Mathur, Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, MN

3. Wi-Fi Mesh Networks

John Edler, Kiyon, Inc., La Jolla, CA

SEMINAR 54 (Intermediate)

Energy Efficient Design of Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 8.10 Mechanical Dehumidification Equipment and Heat

Pipes

Chair: Eric Johnson, Member, Paschal Johnson LLC, San Antonio, TX

Dedicated outdoor air systems are increasingly popular, but many of

these applications are suboptimal. This seminar discusses ways to

optimize the design and control of dedicated outdoor air systems to

lower both installed cost and energy use.

1. Proper Sizing of the Dedicated Outdoor Air Unit

Julie Ferguson, Member, Applied Dehumidification, Tampa, FL

2. Should You Consider the Impact of Moisture Storage in Building

Materials

Hugh Henderson, PE, Member, CDH Energy Corp., Cazenovia, NY

3. Efficient Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems

John Murphy, Member, Trane Co., La Crosse, WI

SEMINAR 55 (Basic)

Energy Efficient Refrigerated Storage and Transport System Design

Track: Refrigeration

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 10.5 Refrigerated Distribution and Storage Facilities;

TC 10.6 Transportation Refrigeration

Chair: Ajay Chatlani, Member, Tyson Foods, Inc., Springdale, AR

Three speakers discuss various topics to reduce the refrigeration

load and energy consumption of refrigerated warehouses and refer

trailers.

1. Influence of Solar Radiation Loads on Storage and Transport

Systems

Silvia Estrada-Flores, PhD, Food Science Australia, North Ryde,

Australia

2. Air Infiltration through External Dock Doors

Donald Cleland, PhD, Massey University, Palmerston North, New

Zealand

3. Dock Humidity Protection Using Desiccants

Phil Rowland, Member, Niagara Blower Co., Buffalo, NY

SEMINAR 56 (Advanced)

Maintaining Sustainability in Facilities that May Require

Quarantine Stations

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.6 Health Care Facilities; Home Land Security

Chair: Carl N. Lawson, Member, Hanson Professional Services, West

Palm Beach, FL

With facilities facing the possibility of adding quarantine

stations due to the pandemic viruses that are plaguing the world, this

seminar identifies areas that could become prime targets. We will

address putting the pieces together in the advent of a pandemic outbreak

and measure exposure risk. The engineer's role in designing or

retrofitting buildings to meet the conditions is also addressed, and a

facility that has some of the measures in place is studied. The session

identifies the possibility of the various viruses and ones that could

become a concern in North America and gives guidance on how to handle

these situations.

1. The Pandemic Puzzle

Marlene Linders, Associate, Philders Group, Lake Mary, FL

2. The Engineer's Role in Designing or Retrofitting the

Building HVAC Systems to Support Community Containment Including

Quarantine Stations

Wayne Thomann, Member, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC

3. Isolations Wards and Why

Firouz Kiekavousi, Member, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL

SEMINAR 57 (Intermediate)

Sustaining Equipment Through Earthquakes and High Winds

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.7 Seismic and Wind Restraint Design

Chair: Robert Simmons, PE, Member, Amber/Booth, Houston, TX

Recent changes in the International Building Code and codes in the

United States have significantly increased the seismic/wind load

requirements for equipment. Code changes affect where and when equipment

are exempt, so many locations with no seismic or wind requirements now

must design for earthquake and wind loads. Both codes have new equations

and factors related to equipment location in the building, performance

requirements, soil conditions, and equipment fragility. This seminar

instructs designers and manufacturers about how to meet the new codes.

1. Current Code (ASCE 7-05) Requirements Overview

James A. Carlson, PE, Member, DEN, Springfield, NE

2. Wind Code Provisions for the Design of Rooftop Equipment in

Canada and the US

Ted Stathopoulos, PhD, Member, Concordia University, Montreal, PQ,

Canada

3. Correct Application of Seismic and Wind Restraints

Paul Meisel, PE, Member, Kinetics Noise Control, Dublin, OH

4. Application of Anchor Bolts

Mark Bartlett, Simpson, McKinney, TX

SEMINAR 58 (Advanced)

Use of Equation Solvers for Simulation

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: TC 4.7 Energy Calculations

Chair: Michael Wetter, PhD, Member, United Technologies Research

Center, East Hartford, CT

This seminar shows how simulation packages that are built using

equation-based solvers can benefit the building energy community. Such

software packages typically separate the formulation of a model's

underlying physics from its numerical solution algorithms. This allows

input-output free modeling, which facilitates model reuse.

Equation-based simulation packages are frequently used in various

industrial sectors. In building energy simulation, however, they have

not yet enjoyed wide-spread use. Based on a technology assessment and

case-studies, this seminar encourages discussions to understand their

applicability, advantages and limitations for the building energy

community.

1. Building Simulation Using an Equation Solver

Michel Bernier, PhD, PE, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal,

PQ, Canada

2. Use of an Embedded Equation-Based Simulation Program in

Automated Diagnostics, Controls Testing and Computer-Based Education

Philip Haves, PhD, Fellow, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Berkeley, CA

3. Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Systems with an Engineering

Equation Solver

Jean J. Lebrun, Fellow, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium

4. Building Energy and Interzonal Airflow Simulation Using an

Equation-Based, Object-Oriented, Multi-Physics Graphical Modeling

Environment

Michael Wetter, PhD, Member, United Technologies Research Center,

East Hartford, CT

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

9:30 a.m.-10:30 a.m.

TRANSACTIONS 18 (Intermediate)

Data Center Cooling: Efficiency Improvements and Total Cost of

Ownership

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and

Electronic Equipment

Chair: Terry L. Rodgers, Member, CPE, Syska Hennessy Group, Inc.,

Charlotte, NC

This session reviews and discusses how Moore's Law predictions

of IT equipment processing and associated power and heat generation

increases are impacting overall power consumption and the need for

specialized infrastructure requirements in today's data centers.

The effect this has on overall total cost of ownership is also

discussed. These concepts are reviewed and validated with regard to data

center designs, operations, and management best practices by comparing

to various actual operating data center case studies and demonstration

projects.

1. Best Practices for Energy Efficient Data Centers Identified

through Case Studies and Demonstration Projects (DA-07-047)

William Tschudi, PE, Member, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Berkeley, CA; Stephen K. Fok, Member, Pacific Gas & Electric Co.,

San Francisco, CA

2. The Impact of Moore's Law on the Total Cost of Computing

(DA-07-048)

Robert F. Sullivan, PhD, Member, The Uptime Institute, Morgan Hill,

CA

SEMINAR 59 (Intermediate)

Advanced Cycles and Systems for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and

Power

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 1.1 Thermodynamics and Measurements

Chair: Laura A. Schaefer, PhD, Associate, University of Pittsburgh,

Pittsburgh, PA

Recently, there have been significant advances in our understanding

and application of advanced thermodynamic cycles and systems for

air-conditioning, refrigeration and power applications. These advances

include hybrid systems and non-vapor-compression cycles. This session

assesses these emerging technologies for their potential as sustainable,

energy-efficient alternatives to conventional systems.

1. Effect of Gas-Liquid Injection on Heat Pumping Cycle

Samuel Sami, PhD, PE, Fellow, University of Moncton, Moncton, NB,

Canada

2. Applications for Absorption Heat Pumps and Heat Transformers

Sivakumar Gopalnarayanan, PhD, Member, United Technologies Research

Center, East Hartford, CT

SEMINAR 60 (Intermediate)

Bridging the Gap from Design to Operations for Building

Sustainability: Part 1

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management; TC 7.1

Integrated Building Design

Chair: James W. Gartner, Member, Four Seasons Environmental Inc.,

Monroe, OH

Over the past 100 years, our HVAC industry segments have become

increasingly separated. As sustainability and green buildings have

become hot topics, our problems in transferring buildings from initial

design through life-cycle operations have become critical. The speakers

focus on approaches taken to close the gap between design and

operations, including integrated design, commissioning and data

management, and give examples of success.

1. Addressing the Totality; from Initial Design to Sustainable

Building Performance

Gail Ann Lindsey, Design Harmony, Inc., Wake Forest, NC

2. Lessons Learned from the Construction Phase in Integrating

Commissioning to Improve Building Operations

Wade H. Berner, PE, Associate, Turner Construction Co., Boston, MA

SEMINAR 61 (Intermediate)

Emerging Wireless Technologies, Part 2: Applications

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.5 Smart Building Systems; TC 1.4 Control Theory and

Application

Chair: Michael R. Brambley, PhD, Member, Pacific Northwest National

Laboratory, Richland, WA

This seminar examines real-world applications of wireless

technology in building energy management and HVAC control. The

presentations look at different facility types, the unique challenges

they present to the application of wireless technology, and solutions to

them. Several applications, including constant-volume to VAV retrofits,

static pressure reset, data center cooling control, and demand response

are presented. Interoperability, battery life and reliability issues are

discussed as well. Highlights from case studies that employed more than

1000 wireless sensors for HVAC controls are presented, along with

impacts on energy use and operational improvements.

1. Wireless Mesh Controller Networks: Facility Specific Challenges

Jeff Raimo, Siemens Building Technologies, Buffalo Grove, IL

2. Wireless Mesh Networks for Supervisory Control and Energy

Management

Clifford C. Federspiel, PhD, PE, Associate, Federspiel Controls,

Albany, CA

3. Case Studies of Wireless Sensors in Building Applications

Michael Kintner-Meyer, PhD, Member, Pacific Northwest National

Laboratory, Richland, WA

FORUM 7 (Advanced)

HVAC Controls In Response To Extraordinary Events: What Research Is

Needed?

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: TC 1.4 Control Theory and Application

Moderator: David M. Underwood, PE, Member, ERDC-CERL, Champaign, IL

Since 9/11 there has been much research and published information

on protection of buildings and their occupants in the event of an

extraordinary event. However, the topic of HVAC controls under these

circumstances has not received a significant amount of research focus.

This forum discusses areas of HVAC controls needing research in response

to extraordinary events.

FORUM 8 (Basic)

How Sustainable are the Various Green Programs?

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.5 Residential and Small Building Applications

Moderator: Barbara A. Checket-Hanks, The Air-Conditioning, Heating,

& Refrigeration NEWS, Troy, MI

Numerous energy efficiency incentive programs are flooding the

market, with various requirements and rewards for meeting their goals.

They are aimed at multiple segments of the building industry. At what

point does the information become overwhelming to the consumer? At what

point does the consumer tune out their noise? This forum discusses if

ASHRAE should compile and disseminate information on these programs to

help consumers sustain interest in sustainability.

FORUM 9 (Intermediate)

Training Commissioning Providers

Track: Business Management

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.9 Building Commissioning

Moderator: Gerald J. Kettler, PE, Member, AIR Engineering and

Testing, Dallas, TX

The commissioning process is expanding in both scope and the

frequency of use. This expansion is exceeding the capabilities of

existing trained providers of commissioning. Several organizations and

universities provide training in the commissioning process. Some also

provide certifications. As the leader in the commissioning movement

ASHRAE should provide not only guidelines but also training requirements

for commissioning providers. This forum discusses the development of

standard commissioning training requirements and possible resultant

certifications.

FORUM 10 (Advanced)

Will 90.1 Help to Conserve Fan Energy?

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 5.1 Fans

Moderator: Charles W. Coward, Jr., Fellow, Waddell Engineering Co.,

Moorestown, NJ

One goal of 90.1 is to help reduce the energy consumption of

buildings and the fans that heat and cool the building. But do the 90.1

guidelines help the designer to properly select fans, or do these

guidelines just make proper fan selection more difficult? This forum

discusses how alternative fan selection methods will help the designer

meet 90.1 goals as well as meet the building needs.

Tuesday

January 30, 2007

10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

SEMINAR 62 (Intermediate)

Bridging the Gap from Design to Operations for Buildng

Sustainability, Part 2

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom C (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management; TC 7.1

Integrated Building Design

Chair: Michael R. Brambley, PhD, Member, Pacific Northwest National

Laboratory, Richland, WA

Over the past 100 years, our HVAC industry segments have become

increasingly separated. As sustainability and green buildings have

become hot topics, our problems in transferring buildings from initial

design through life-cycle operations have become critical. The speakers

focus on approaches taken to close the gap between design and

operations, including integrated design, commissioning and data

management, and give examples of success.

1. Building Life Cycle Information Management: Design and

Operations

Robert J. Hitchcock, Member, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Berkeley, CA

2. Commissioning IS the Bridge

William J. McCartney, Member, Isotherm Engineering, Mississauga,

ON, Canada

3. Operators Attempt to Bridge the Gap

Thomas E. Cappelin, PE, Member, Hanson Professional Services, Inc.,

West Palm Beach, FL

SEMINAR 63 (Basic)

Energy Efficient Air Filtration Media for Residential and

Commercial Applications

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom B (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 2.4 Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate

Contaminant Removal Equipment

Chair: Kyung-Ju Choi, PhD, Member, AAF International, Louisville,

KY

The forced air ventilation filters in residential and commercial

applications are gaining popularity throughout the world. Currently

there are varieties of residential and commercial filters in the market

responding to increased awareness of indoor air quality. This seminar

discusses how the design of HVAC filtration media is constantly evolving

due to energy efficiency and higher filtration efficiency.

1. Electret: Why It Is Gaining Popularity in Air Filtration

Applications

Ker-Ching Hsieh, PhD, Member, Particle Tech, Vadnais Heights, MN

2. The Evolution of Energy Efficient Air Filtration Media

Al Vatine, Member, LMS Technologies, Bloomington, MN

3. HVAC Filtration Media Design for Residential and Commercial

Applications--Today and in the Future

Jack Manns, H & V, East Walpole, MA

SEMINAR 64 (Basic)

Enhancement of Building Integration and System Performance by

Exergy Analysis

Track: Applications

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TG1. Exergy Analysis for Sustainable Buildings

Chair: S.M. Sami, PhD, Member, University of Moncton, PQ, Canada

Integrated building system design and analysis is becoming more

sophisticated, and energy efficiency needs to be complemented by exergy

analyses to obtain optimum solutions and designs for sustainable

development, where exergy seems to be a common metric. This seminar

focuses on new studies and applications of exergy analysis directed

toward integrated building systems, including plumbing systems.

1. Exergetic Analysis of District Energy Systems

Ibrahim Dincer, PhD, Member, University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON,

Canada

2. Measuring Operating Integrated System Exergy Performance

David P.W. Solberg, PE, HVAC Systems Technology, Minneapolis, MN

3. Do We Buy Energy or Exergy?

Peter Novak, PhD, Fellow, Energotech, Ljubljana, Slovenia

SEMINAR 65 (Intermediate)

Heat Pumps: Rags to Riches

Track: Systems and Equipment

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: Historical Committee

Chair: Ismena Deacon, Member, CEng, ADSM plc, Slough, Berkshire,

United Kingdom

Heat pump sales in 2005 surpassed 2.1 million units in the United

States and more than 30 million worldwide. These are astounding numbers

compared to sales in the 1950s and 1960s when sales in the U. S.

strained to reach 100,000 per year. This seminar discusses the

remarkable transformation in popularity of the heat pump. Even stronger

sales of heat pumps are predicted in the future. These presenters, each

of whom have been active for many years in the HVAC industry will look

back at some of the research, product development, service strategies,

and installation challenges experienced at their respective levels at

the manufacturing, wholesale distributor and installing and servicing

contractor levels.

1. A Century and a Half of Heat Pump Development

Gerald Groff, PE, Fellow Life Member, Groff Associates, Cazenovia,

NY

2. Lesson Learned: Adding Reversing Valves to Reliable Air

Conditioners Did Not Yield Reliable Heat Pumps

Joseph A. Pietsch, PE, Fellow, Dallas, TX

3. Heat Pump Equipment Advances

Wayne Reedy, Fellow, Carrier Corp., Indianapolis, IN

4. Fifty Years of Heat Pumps, Servicing and Training Programs

Nance C. Lovvorn, Fellow, Lovvorn Consulting Services, Birmingham,

AL

SEMINAR 66 (Basic)

IEEE 519 and Adjustable Frequency Drive Harmonics

Track: Fundamentals

Adam's Mark Hotel, Seminar Theater (H/2)

Sponsor: TC 1.11 Electric Motors and Motor Control

Chair: John W. Tolbert, Member, Bristol Compressors, Bristol, VA

This seminar expands on the longstanding issues related to variable

speed drive harmonics as referenced in IEEE Standard 519. The basic

definition of harmonic distortion along with the fundamentals of why

drives cause current and voltage distortion are discussed. The effects

of harmonics on the user, on the power grid, and the equipment are

covered, as well as the various solutions available for mitigation.

1. Beating the Harmonics Rap: Filter and Trap

Jim Nash, PE, ABB Inc, New Berlin, WI

2. Harmonic Mitigation Selection

Rick L. Hoadley, Rockwell Automation, Mequon, WI

SEMINAR 67 (Advanced)

Risk Management of Infectious Airborne Diseases

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom D2 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 9.6 Health Care Facilities

Chair: Sidney A. Parsons, PE, PEng, Member, Council for Industrial

and Scientific Research, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

The seminar investigates current risk management practices with

respect to airborne infectious diseases in healthcare settings. The

presentations will cover containment needs, including quarantine for

pandemic flu incidences, meaningful environmental surveillance for

infection control, and risk management of airborne aerosols with

legionella bacteria.

1. Risk Management of Airborne Aerosols Contaminated with

Legionella Bacteria: Technical and Legal Perspective of Recent Cases

William F. McCoy, PhD, Member, Phigenics LLC, Naperville, IL

2. Justification and Approach for Pandemic Flu Containment

Including Quarantine

Wayne R. Thomann, PhD, Member, Duke University Medical Centre,

Durham, NC

3. Meaningful Environmental Surveillance for Infection Control

Andrew J. Streifel, PE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

4. Risk Management for Infection Control

James E. Woods, PhD, PE, Member, Building Diagnostics Research

Institute Inc., Chevy Chase, MD

FORUM 11 (Intermediate)

Enforcing Test and Balance Specifications

Track: Operational Topics

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A1 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 7.7 Testing and Balancing

Moderator: Gerald J. Kettler, PE, Member, AIR Engineering and

Testing, Inc., Dallas, TX

Construction specifications are written by the design professionals

to describe the scope and procedures for building construction.

Submittals for equipment allow the designer to review and approve the

equipment to be used before it is installed. Because testing, adjusting

and balancing is a labor procedure, the function of enforcing the

specification is different. The designer may not understand the TAB

process and rarely goes to the job site with any equipment to check

performance. This forum is for discussing options for specification

enforcement particularly for the test and balance operations.

FORUM 12 (Advanced)

Property Needs for Natural Refrigerants

Track: Refrigeration

Adam's Mark Hotel, Dallas Ballroom A3 (CC/1)

Sponsor: TC 3.1 Refrigerants and Secondary Coolants

Moderator: Thomas J. Leck, PhD, Member, Dupont Fluoroproducts,

Wilmington, DE

To reduce global warming, the industry is evaluating refrigerants

with low global warming potential. Under consideration are refrigerants

like hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide. This forum explores the

property data needed to design equipment using natural refrigerants. Is

there data that is not currently available that should be included in

the Handbook? Is the property data available elsewhere? Should ASHRAE

sponsor research projects to develop fundamental property data for the

natural refrigerants?

href='http://www.thefreelibrary.com/2007ASHRAEWinterMeetingDallas,Texas.-a0164927179' - http://www.thefreelibrary.com/2007ASHRAEWinterMeetingDallas,Texas.-a0164927179 -

Jan 13, 2017 at 23:54 o\clock

Is Globalization a New Phenomenon?

In recent years, the term globalization has become a common topic of discussion in academic circles across the world. Amidst these discussions, many people are inclined to assert that globalization is a new phenomenon--the fruits of a postmodernist generation's labor of advancing technology in order to bridge gaps that were previously unavoidable. For essentially, by insinuating that the current generation has constructed the 'age of globalization,' scholars are able to validate that this generation has made a distinguishing contribution to society--a contribution that allows liberal ideologues to salivate at the possibility of a society that abolishes the nation-state in order to unify under the jurisdiction of a single, fair international order. In short, the potential cause-and-effect relationship between a generation's efforts to bring the world closer together and a world with common political and economic motives is quite appealing to proponents of supra-state involvement. In this sense, globalization would be classified as something new in the world today. However, as history as early as ancient times tells us, globalization has always been a prevalent aspect of human society. Simply put, humans have never been static creatures; our desire to spread subjective culture is one of the defining traits of humanity. For better or worse, humans migrate in search of purpose--a sense of fulfillment that is not emulated by any other species. So, instead of pretending that globalization is a new phenomenon that proves our generation's worth, contemporary society should realize that we are merely living in the times of a new kind of globalization--one that invites the nation-state and the supra-state to the 'decision-making' table. In the process, by studying past failures of globalization, contemporary society has the opportunity to solidify the necessary development of globalization in a way that benefits the greatest number of people. Otherwise, as former United States President Jimmy Carter sardonically reminds us, "[g]lobalization, as defined by rich people like us, is a very nice thing...you are talking about the Internet, you are talking about cell phones, you are talking about computers. This doesn't affect two-thirds of the people of the world" (Carter 1: 1977). Ultimately globalization has existed for centuries, and the current state of globalization is one that is undeniably intertwined with innovative technology, a collective capitalist mentality, and the rise of the international community's legitimacy; accordingly, I intend to prove the aforementioned assertion by providing evidence that globalization has existed in the past, commenting upon current theory pertaining to globalization, and ultimately unveiling my own interpretation of globalization in an age of unpredictability.

            Herein, I will try to explain why globalization is not a new phenomenon--even though we are tempted to claim that it is something new merely because of the rise of technology and the debatable decline of the nation-state in favor of international law. For instance, Robert Robertson explains in defense of his assertion that globalization is a relatively new phenomenon, "...there is an eerie relationship between the ideas of postmodernism and postmodernity and the day-by-day geopolitical 'earthquakes' which we (the virtually global we) have recently experienced" (Robertson 16: 1990). Granted Robertson is writing during the decline of the Soviet Union, which effectively restructured society in favor of a predominantly Western and capitalist mentality, he is making the mistake of overextending the significance of the present at the expense of similar historical events. In order to illustrate the range of time in which "geopolitical 'earthquakes'" have restructured society from an economic and political perspective, one could cite Roma's conquest of the Gauls and Celts in northern Italy in 208 B.C. As realists such as Machiavelli and Morgenthau would note, it is the nation-state's desire for power in the form of global influence that forms our society of states; hence, globalization has been and always will be eerie as long as there is a hegemonic struggle for autonomous power. Liberals will promptly ascertain that the abolition of hegemonic struggle can become reality if the world were to adhere to international order, but the differences in the particular interests of nation-states prohibits globalization from ever truly having that effect in the foreseeable future.

            Another common claim is that the state's current limited autonomy proves that globalization is a new phenomenon. This is also fallacious for misinterpreting how an involved international community affects a state's autonomy. For instance, prior to the existence of organizations such as the United Nations or NATO, countries were essentially freely able to act in an unjustly imperialistic manner--surely the Belgian Congo or the events leading up to World War I prove this to be the case. In other words, the majority of states, especially the weakest, have always had limited autonomy; therefore, the continuation of limited autonomy would impose the continuation of globalization. As Frank Lechner states, "...the diffusion of the idea of the national society as a form of institutionalized societalism was central to the accelerated globalization which began to occur just over one hundred years ago" (Lechner 26: 1989). Summarily, if people of various nation-states have always been spreading ideals with people of other nation-states because states have never been the sole possessors of legitimacy, then globalization is not something new.

            Since globalization is a rather recent talking point, there are still many various theories that attempt to explain why globalization is occurring and how it positively and negatively affects society. One such theory, proposed by Anthony Giddens and Zygmuni Bauman, suggests that the limitations of state sovereignty--presumably at the expense of sub-state and supra-state movements--results in, "the traditional model of society losing its credence" (Bauman 57: 1992). Therefore, as Giddens says, ""[i]t is thus largely irrelevant to continue to make distinctions between the internal and the external, the foreign and the domestic spheres of socio-economic activity..." (Giddens 14: 1990). In contrast to these suppositions, though, as Anthony McGrew briefly explains, globalization is quite ironically cyclical. For instance, although globalization spreads ideas like it has been for centuries (only now the process is exponentially expedited), particularization is also encouraged in order for people to consider themselves unique in a time of global interconnectivity. Another such example is apparent when power is centralized by the international community; practically involuntarily, "...nations, communities, and individuals attempt to take greater control over forces which influence their 'fate'" (McGrew 479: 1996) in order to maintain a sense of free will whilst encompassed by ample regulation. The desire for individual identity dually embraces the newfound 'global-networking' identity while maintaining traditional forms of state and localized classification.

            Another theory resides in the belief that the rapid demilitarization occurring in the post-Cold War era also threatens state sovereignty (Shaw: 1991). As McGrew claims, "This result is a significant shift towards multilateral diplomacy and collective action, which in the process further erodes the competence of states to control their own destiny" (McGrew 489: 1996). On the surface, rapid demilitarization does seem to lessen the state's most notable advantage over international jurisdiction in controlling armed forces, but in actuality, the state continues to find ways to avoid the negative aspects of demilitarization. For instance, a handful of states vehemently abstain from joining the NPT and, as is the case in the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, states find ways to circumvent the legitimacy of international law. And in that regard, states--under the guise of globalization and imperialism in particular--have always circumvented international policy if it is beneficial to the state's subjective interests. Essentially, states have always sacrificed some sovereignty in order to participate in globalization (voluntarily or involuntarily), but a state's ability to always act in its own best interests denies the existence of a world community that could be classified as even remotely omnipotent.



            The evidence reveals that states are gradually relinquishing more and more sovereignty as globalization is at its peak, but clearly they remain the primary actors due to maintaining force and acting in their own interests. Bearing this in mind, then how can globalization be defined? If it were simply that globalization implies faster connectedness with other parts of the world due to technological advancement, then my argument probably would have been that globalization is something completely new. In contrast, globalization stems far beyond bridging the time-space gap; globalization is what has prompted civilization after civilization to expand its territory, what appeals thousands of cultural connoisseurs to travel around the world to educate and to be educated, and what has always given people multiple identities--firstly loyal to their particular state, but always identifying with alternative influences as well. The creation of infinite melting pots intertwining garners the notion that one event can directly affect multiple peoples across the world--whether it be socially, politically, or economically. In this sense, globalization has never ceased to exist, nor has it ever been as important as in the present time. There is indisputable evidence that we are embarking upon a new kind of globalization.

             Overall, there are a few distinct characteristics that define contemporary globalization. Firstly, globalization is nearly synonymous with Westernization due to the rise of capitalism and democratic values that are gradually becoming predominant around the world. The recent developments during the Arab Spring serve as an example of how Western social influence has facilitated the desire for personal freedom. Similarly, Immanuel Wallerstein asserts that capitalism is the driving force behind the rise in globalization because capitalism opens generally unregulated avenues for previously disconnected states. However, as he warns, "It is simply not true that capitalism as a historical system has represented progress over the various previous historical systems that it destroyed or transformed" (Wallerstein 98: 1995). A contemporary example that highlights Wallerstein's concerns can be observed in the current EU economic crisis; capitalism without sufficient regulation tends to be detrimental to society--Italy and Greece amongst other states can attest to this. Nevertheless, the spread of globalization typically correlates with the spread of capitalism since inviting businesses and entrepreneurs alike to invest in many different areas increases the exchange of culture and technology. And finally, in accordance with a realist perspective, the hegemonic "society of states" (Gilpin 311: 1986) remains the primary actors--an example being how the United States and the Soviet Union remained the primary actors during the Cuban Missile Crisis rather than resorting to ineffective international protocol. As Kenneth Waltz proclaimed, "...power maintains an order; the use of force signals its breakdown" (Waltz 185: 1979). Globalization has the potential to be very effective if it does not interfere with state sovereignty, as history has proven that situations become hostile when a state believes that their sovereignty is at risk. In short, the world must embrace 'unity in diversity,' thusly inviting the, "...possibility of cultural imperialism coexisting with cultural identities" (Smith 174: 1990). If respective societies can maintain the beneficial aspects of their own society while welcoming favorable change (democratic values, fair capitalism, etc.), then the potential of contemporary globalization is boundless.

            In conclusion, globalization is a topic that deserves to be thoroughly examined in order for humanity to fully understand what it entails. For while technology has certainly made information from distant lands more accessible, events occurring in one place have always had the ability to affect decisions and subsequent outcomes in another place. If that were not the case, then interconnectivity would not have existed until very recently--a stance that makes very little sense in my opinion. Because the world has been interconnected for hundreds of years, as previously mentioned, globalization is not something new. Rather, the current state of globalization is http://seoathens.gr - SEO Greece - something new--attributable to the rise of Western values, demilitarization, and the increasing legitimacy of the supra-state community in particular. In spite of all of these developments, globalization is still dictated by the best interests of state actors; hence, globalization can only be as effective as the strongest states allow it to be. Accordingly, globalization has the potential to aid or hinder society; it is entirely dependent upon whether desirable cultural values are being spread. The global society appears to generally be on the right track (minus some current exploitative economic and hawkish militant blunders), but until all states embrace basic freedoms, the effects of globalization are as unpredictable as the rest of the age of postmodernism.

Bauman, Z. (1992) Intimations of Postmodernity, London, England, Routledge.

Carter, J. (1977) Address to the Nation on Energy, Charlottesville, United States, University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs.

Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge, England, Polity Press.





Gilpin, R. (1986) 'The richness of the tradition of political realism', in Keohane, R. (ed.), Neo-Realism and its Critics, New York, Columbia University Press.

Lechner, F.J. (1989) 'Cultural Aspects of the Modern World System', in Swatos, W.H. (ed.), Religious Politics in Global Perspective, New York, Greenwood Press.

Machiavelli, N. (1985) The Prince Translated by Mansfield, H., Chicago, United States, University of Chicago Press.

McGrew, A. (1996) 'A Global Society?', in Hall, S, Held, D and McGrew, A. (ed.), Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge, England, Polity Press.

Morgenthau, H. (1948) Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York, United States, Alfred A. Knopf.

Robertson, R. (1990) 'Mapping the Global condition: Globalization as the Central Concept', in Featherstone, M. (ed.), Theory, Culture and Society, London, England, SAGE Publications.

Shaw, M. (1991) Post-Military Society, Cambridge, England, Polity Press.

Smith, A. (1990) 'Towards a Global Culture?', in Featherstone, M. (ed.), Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, London, England, SAGE Publications.

Wallerstein, I. (1995) Historical Capitalism, with Capitalist Civilization, London, England, Verso.

Waltz, K. (1979) Theory of International Politics, Berkeley, United States, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.